New York City Fire Code Chapter 14 Fire Safety During Construction, Alteration and Demolition Presentation to New York Fire Safety Academy for the Construction Industry Assistant Chief Richard Tobin Bureau of Fire Prevention FDNY
Fire Safety During Construction, Alteration and Demolition (CDA) • Buildings under CDA must comply with Chapter 14 of the Fire Code and NFPA 241. • Construction Site is defined as any location where a building, premise or facility is undergoing construction, alteration or demolition.
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1403 Portable Fueled Space-heaters • Portable Oil fueled heaters - May be used at construction sites for curing and drying purposes. • Portable Gas fueled heaters - Utilizing LPG , CNG or piped natural gas may be used curing and drying purposes. • Portable Coke fueled salamanders - Are not recognized by the Fire Code. An FDNY variance for their use is required. All categories of heaters cited under FC Section 1403 require an FDNY Certificate of Fitness S-92.
Fire Safety During CDA Coke Salamanders are no longer recognized by the New York City Fire Code. • FDNY will write Variances allowing their use for the 2009 – 2010 winter season. • Requests for Variance must be submitted to: Bureau of Fire Prevention Technology Management Unit – 3rd Floor 9 Metro-Tech Center, Brooklyn NY 11201
Fire Safety During CDA • Coke Salamanders use coal briquettes. • Require fire guard with Certificate of Fitness S-92. • Must be kept 10 feet from tarpaulins or other combustible enclosures. • Tarpaulins must be made of fire retardant material. • CO monitor must be available on site and hourly readings taken when in operation.
Fire Safety During CDA • Record of CO readings must be maintained in bound notebook, the hourly patrol record may be kept in same notebook. • There must be escape hatches with a minimum width of 44 inches in place on the floor where salamanders are deployed. • Salamanders must be BSA approved devices mounted on non-combustible platforms. • Fire extinguishers must be in place one per 2,500 square feet of floor area.
Fire Safety During CDA Section FC 1404 Precautions Against Fire • Smoking is prohibited at all CDA Sites. • No smoking signs must be posted.
Fire Safety During CDA Violating Rules Against Smoking Results In Tragedy
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1404 Precautions Against Fire • Open fires are not allowed. It is unlawful to ignite or maintain an open fire at a construction site. • Spontaneous combustion - Materials subject to spontaneous combustion, such as oily rags, shall be stored in an approved fireproof container.
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1404.5 Fire Watch - An Area of Confusion !! • The Fire Commissioner may require persons holding FDNY certificates of fitness to serve as on site “fire watches” fire-watch is a broad term used in the new Fire Code. Fire watches required to have an FDNY C of F are referred to as “Fire Guards” by the FDNY. • Fire guards (Require FDNY Certificate of Fitness) shall be provided with at least one approved means of notifying the FDNY in case of fire. • The sole duty of the fire watch is to constantly patrol for and watch for the occurrence of fire.
Fire Safety During CDA • Combustible waste shall be removed at the end of each work shift, but at least once a day or stored in non combustible containers. It shall not be allowed to accumulate in the building.
Fire Safety During CDA Allowing Flammable Rubbish to Accumulate Has Proven Deadly
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1404.6 Cutting and Welding • Hot Work is defined as cutting, welding, brazing, soldering, torch applied roof systems or any other similar activity or operation. • Hot Work Area – The area exposed to sparks, hot slag, radiant heat, or convective heat as a result of hot work.
Fire Safety During CDA Hot Work Fire Watch Requirements A fire watch(FDNYcertified) shall be maintained and fireguards shall be require in accordance with FC Sections 2604.2.1 through 2604.2.7 • 2604.2.1 – A fire watch(FDNY Certified) shall be maintained during hot work operations. The fire watch shall be maintained a minimum of 30 minutes after conclusion of the work. This timeframe may be extended DOC.
Fire Safety During CDA Hot Work Fire Watch Requirements • 2604.2.2 Location - Fire watch shall observe the entire hot work area. Hot work conducted in areas with vertical or horizontal fire exposures that are not observable by a single individual shall have additional personnel assigned to ensure exposed areas are monitored.
Fire Safety During CDA Hot Work Fire Watch Requirements • 2604.2.3 Duties- Fire watch shall have fire extinguishing equipment available. Fire watch shall be trained to use extinguishers. Fire watch shall extinguish spot fire and report same to FDNY. • 2604.2.4 Fire Training- The individuals responsible for performing the hot work AND the fire watch shall be trained to use portable extinguishers.
Fire Safety During CDA Hot Work Fire Watch Requirements • 2604.2.5 Fire Hoses - Where hose lines are required, they shallbe connected, charged and ready for operation. • 2604.2.6 Portable Fire Extinguishers- A minimum of one (1) portable fire extinguisher with a minimum 2-A-20-BC rating shall be available and within thirty (30) feet of the location where hot work is performed and where fire guards are positioned.
Fire Safety During CDA Hot Work Fire Watch Requirements 2604.2.7 Fire Guards for Torch Operations The fire watch for torch operations conducted at the following locations shall be conducted by fire guards with FDNY C of F. • Construction sites. • On any roof top or in connection with any torch applied roof system operations. • In any building or structure, when torch operation is conducted by a person holding a citywide permit for torch operations.
Fire Safety During CDA Hot Work Fire Watch Requirements • 2604.2.7.1 Construction sites and torch-applied roof systems – A fireguardshall be provided for each torch operation at a construction site and in connection with torch-applied roofing system operations. A fire guard shall be provided for each torch in operation. An additional fireguard shall be provided on the floor or level below the torch operation.
Fire Safety During CDA FC Section 1405 Flammable and Combustible Liquids • Storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in compliance with Chapter 34 of the Fire Code Section 3404. • Leaking containers shall be immediately repaired or taken out of service. Spills must be cleaned up immediately. • Sources of ignition are prohibited in storage area in accord with Section 310.8 which grants the Fire Commissioner wide latitude to designate that sources of ignition create an undue fire hazard.
Fire Safety During CDA FC Section 1405 Flammable and Combustible Liquids • 1405.5 Handling at point of final use Class 1( flashpoint below 100 degrees F) and Class 2 ( flashpoint below at or above 100 degrees F) liquids shall be stored in approved safety containers. • Containers for Class 1 liquids shall not exceed 5 gallons capacity.
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1406 Flammable Gases and Oxygen • Requirements for storage are found in Chapters 26, 35 and 38 of the Fire Code. • Oxygen shall be stored in compliance with Sec. 1406.2.1 through Sec. 1406.2.1.9 • Storage in excess of 1 cylinder (6.2 cubic feet) shall be located outdoors. • Storage room for oxygen must be ventilated and not contain any combustible material or flammable gas.
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1406 Flammable Gases and Oxygen • Service piping from an oxygen manifold shall be copper tubing, stainless steel, wrought iron or steel and be run vertically outside the building to the floor or floors being serviced. • Signs shall be posted in storage area of liquid oxygen “DANGER-LIQUID OXYGEN - NO SMOKING - NO OPEN FLAME”. • Operating instructions shall be posted near any liquid oxygen manifold. • An Affidavit shall be provided by the installer /contractor certifying vaporizer, piping, hose and safety devices are approved and tested.
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1406 Flammable Gases and Oxygen • Oxygen trailers shall be constructed in accordance with United States DOT specifications. • Operating instructions shall be posted near the trailer. • The owner or operator of the trailer must notify FDNY 48 hours in advance of the delivery of the trailer to the site. • Handling and use of portable liquid oxygen containers and oxygen trailers shall be under personal supervision of a certificate of fitness holder. • Storage shall be under the general supervision of the C of F holder.
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1407 Explosive Materials • FDNY Certificate of Fitness holders are required for storage, handling and use. • Blasting shall be conducted within guidelines provided by FC Section 3303 and NFPA 495. • Never fight explosives fires! Immediately call FDNY.
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1408 Construction Site Fire Safety Manager • Required whenever a site safety manager or fire safety coordinator is required by the Building Code. • Fire Safety Manager shall conduct inspection of site daily for fire safety measures and maintain record of inspections for FDNY review.
Fire Safety During CDA Requirements For Construction SiteFireSafety Manager have not been finalized by FDNY. The expectation is that the position will require an FDNY Certificate of Fitness.
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1408 Construction Site Fire Safety Manager • Pre-fire plans shall be developed by Fire Safety Manager and kept at site for FDNY review. • FDNY shall be notified of any changes to the FSP. • Training on portable fire extinguishers and other fire protection equipment shall be provided to construction workers by the Fire Safety Manager.
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1408 Construction Site Fire Safety Manager • FSM shall ensureall fire protection equipment and systems are available, periodically tested, and maintained according to the Fire and Building Code Rules. • FSM is responsible for ensuring Hot Work is done in accord with FC Chapter 26.
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1408 Construction Site Fire Safety Manager • Impairment of Fire Protection Systems - FSM shall comply with FC Section 901 in the event of impairment any fire protection system • Records of inspections shall be maintained for 3 years and available for FDNY inspection.
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1408 Construction Site Fire Safety Manager • Whenever a required fire protection system is out of service the FSM must immediately notify FDNY. FC 1409 Fire Alarm Reporting • A telephone not requiring a coin or other approved and clearly identified means to notify FDNY shall be provided. The emergency number of the FDNY must be posted adjacent to the phone or other approved device.
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1410 Access for Firefighting • Vehicle access shall be capable of supporting FDNY vehicle load (75,000 lbs.) under all weather conditions. • A Key box shall be maintained that is operable by an FDNY key. The box shall contain building entry keys and other keys that may be required for access in an emergency.
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1410 Access for Firefighting • A Key box shall be maintained that is operable by an FDNY key. The box shall contain building entry keys and other keys that may be required for access in an emergency.
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1410 Access for Firefighting • Access for FDNY apparatus must be provided. Access must be provided within 100 feet of temporary or permanent fire department connections. • Vehicle access shall be capable of supporting FDNY vehicle load (75,000 lbs.) under all weather conditions.
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1411 Means of Egress and Elevators • Stairways shall be available and remain unobstructed. • Required means of egress shall be maintained during CDA in accordance with the Fire and Building Codes. • Elevators shall be provided and maintained for FDNY use in accordance with construction and Building Codes.
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1411 Egress and Elevators • Section 3303.11 of the NYC Building Code requires that means of egress shall be maintained at all times during construction and demolition. The only exception to this rule is “where there are approved temporary means of egress systems and facilities.”
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1411 Egress and Elevators • Building Code Section 3303.12 temporary elevator or hoist. Whenever construction or demolition work reaches a height greater than 75 feet at least one elevator or hoist shall be in readiness for FDNY use at all times. The max distance between the highest accessible floor from a temporary elevator or hoist for a building under CDA is 75 feet.
If construction reaches over seventy-five in height at least one elevator shall be kept in readiness at all times for use by the Fire Department Fire Safety During CDA FC 1411 Elevator In Readiness
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1412 Water Supply for Fire Protection • Any water supply for firefighting operations including standpipe outlets, street hydrants, and yard hydrants shall not be used for construction, alteration or demolition purposes unless approved by FDNY. FC 1413 Standpipes • Standpipe shall be maintained dry during CDA and available for FDNY Use.
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1413 Standpipes For use at construction sites shall be provided, maintained, and made available for FDNY use in accordance with this code, and the construction codes including the NYC Building Code.
Fire Safety During CDA New York City Building Code re: Standpipe • Section 27-1014(b) requires a standpipe when the building reaches a height of seventy-five feet with a floor system in place. • Standpipes shall be maintained as dry systems. • During demolition / construction the standpipe risers shall be capped above the outlet on the floor below the highest floor maintaining the standpipe system on all lower floors for fire department use. • Standpipe systems consisting of two or more risers may utilize one of the risers to convey compressed air upon application to and permission from the fire department. • A metal sign at the Siamese connection for the standpipe must be present reading “STANDPIPE SIAMESE CONNECTION” with a red light over the sign. The red light must be lit at night.
Fire Safety During CDA Properly Posted Siamese Sign With Red Light Overhead
Fire Safety During CDA Unacceptable Siamese Sign Is LackingRed Light and Metal Sign
Fire Safety During CDA 1415 Portable Fire Extinguishers • Where required: • At each stairwell where combustible waste is stored/generated. • At the entrance to storage sheds. • Where flammable or combustible liquids are stored, handled or used. • On each floor one per 2,500 square feet.
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1416 Internal Combustion Powered Equipment • Exhaust shall not discharge against combustible material. • Equipment shall not be refueled while in operation. • Fuel for equipment shall be stored in an approved outdoor area, and shall be moved in containers not exceeding 5 gallons capacity.
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1417 Roofing Operations • If hot work is involved must comply with Chapters 25, 35 and 38 as applicable. • Tar Kettles shall not be located within 20 feet of combustibles. Shall not be used on the roof of a building and shall not block egress. • Certificate of fitness to operate is required. And C of F holder must be within 100 feet of the kettle during operations.
Fire Safety During CDA FC 1417 Roofing Operations • At least one portable extinguisher shall be available minimum rating of 3-A :40 BC rating. • 1417.4 It shall be unlawful to install roofing material with a torch on a roof of combustible construction using hot work equipment.
Fire Safety During CDA • FC1418 Small arms ammunition for powder-actuatedtools: • Stored in metal box. • Away from heat and not stored in same storage area or storage facility containing compressed gases or flammable liquids. • Storage area marked “DANGER-AMMUNITION”
Fire Safety During CDA • FC1418 Small arms ammunition for powder-actuatedtools: • Certificate of Fitness holder to establish safe zone behind work area with 1/2 inch steel plate. • At least one portable fire extinguisher with minimum 2-AA rating shall be provided in ammunition storage area.
Fire Safety During CDA FC1418 Small arms ammunition for powder-actuatedtools: • Powder actuated tools shall only be operated by a Certificate of Fitness holder. • Storage of small arms ammunition shall be under the general supervision of an FDNY Certificate of Fitness Holder.