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Exploring Music Introduction 8. by Prof. Lydia Ayers. Chordophones: Strings. A vibrating string produces sound. Important elements are the string and a rigid frame to hold it tight. Plucked Struck Bowed Air. North American Folk Music.

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by prof lydia ayers

Exploring Music

Introduction 8

by Prof. Lydia Ayers

chordophones strings
Chordophones: Strings
  • A vibrating string produces sound.
  • Important elements are the string and a rigid frame to hold it tight.
  • Plucked
  • Struck
  • Bowed
  • Air
north american folk music
North American Folk Music
  • Where was the farmer who wanted to win the Nobel prize?
  • Out standing in his field….
african bow harp
African Bow Harp
  • <8:07> lullaby
    • accompanied by bow harp with gourd resonator, struck with stick
    • Zulu people, Republic of South Africa
  • African myth about the origin of the bow harp:

Swazi man plays a musical bow

http://viewimages.lycos.com/LycosPurchase.asp?imageid=AR000357&partnerid=12

A young girl went out for a walk. She knelt down and drank water with cupped hands at a stream. At the very moment when she had satisfied her thirst, a man dealt her a strong blow on the nape of the neck. As she died, she immediately transformed into a musical bow; her body became the wood, her limbs the cord, her head the sound box, and her spirit the melancholy and sentimental music.

berimbau
Berimbau
  • bow and arrow-like instrument
  • folk ritual
  • from African jungles of Angola to Bahia, Brazil
  • played by striking the string with a stick while stopping the string with a coin and holding a shaker
berimbau6
Berimbau
  • How to build and play the berimbau probably came to Brazil from Africa
  • Often compared to the moans of slaves longing for their African homeland
  • African musical bow primarily a solo instrument
  • Brazilian bow developed into an ensemble instrument, employed in public performances of capoeira and samba
  • The word berimbau is Portuguese
8 08 capoeira
<8:08> Capoeira
  • Brazilian dance from martial arts
  • accompanied by berimbau
    • high note produced by coin pressed against string (stopped)
    • low note on open string (unstopped)
ektara gopi yantra
EKTARA / GOPI YANTRA
  • Bengal folk instrument
  • Spherical resonator made of dried pumpkin, wood or coconut
  • Split bamboo cane neck
  • String attached through skin membrane on the bottom of the resonator

http://www.indian-instruments.com/stringed_instruments/ektara_gopiyantra.htm

one string phono fiddle
One String Phono Fiddle
  • A web search for “one string instrument” produced a picture of the phono fiddle
    • The bell amplifies the sound!!

http://www.carolenoakes.co.uk/market/otherstrings/CNS730.htm

monochord n b u
Monochord: Đàn bầu
  • Vietnamese
  • Wood box resonator, with a flexible vertical stick (neck), to which one end of its string is tied
  • Uses mostly harmonic overtones
  • Subtle ornamentations, glissandi and imitation of the human voice produced by simultaneously plucking the string and pulling the vertical stick
  • [iii:38]Hanh van from Tieng Đàn bầu
7 8 bow harp
<7:8> Bow Harp
  • man singing and playing 2 bow harps
  • Baule people, Ivory Coast

http://www.artichokeguitars.com/published/our_collection/string_ethnic_instruments.htm

7 9 kora
<7:9> Kora
  • body half a large gourd
  • thick center pole with 10 strings on one side, and 11 on the other

kora maker

kora player

5 5 kulibit
<5:5> Kulibit
  • Bamboo tube zither from the Philippines

http://www.geidai.ac.jp/~odaka/gcat/image/212.jpg

zheng
Zheng
  • popular during the Warring States period
  • 12 to 21 strings, with movable bridges like flying wild geese
  • plucking techniques
  • pressing techniques
  • <3:13> shaking techniques
zheng15
Zheng
  • [iii:8]<3:14> The Lotus is in Blossom Above the Water
    • The beginning of the music, like the red lotus blossom out of the water, symbolizes the prettiness and tenderness of the lotus blossom
slide16
Qin
  • the most ancient Chinese string instrument used today
  • playing was cultivated as a literary pastime and for spiritual elevation
  • Typical performing environment
    • privacy and intimate surroundings of a gentleman-scholar’s study
  • Programmatic titles dominate
qin guqin
Qin / Guqin
  • 7-string zither
  • an instrument that has survived more than 2,500 years
  • an indigenous musical instrument (not imported)
slide18
Qin
  • The sound of the instrument is extremely soft
    • dynamic variations are confined to a small range
  • Minute differences in finger techniques produce many shades of musical timbre
    • e.g. many kinds of vibratos, glissandi, harmonics, etc.
  • <3:15> video of qin on No 17 Cotton Mill Shanghai Blues, Music in China
qanoun
Qanoun
  • zither
    • groups of three strings, like the piano, but is plucked
    • tremolo technique
    • tuning levers

Umut Yesilmen

iv 37 whoopie ti yi yo get along little doggies
[iv:37]Whoopie Ti-Yi-Yo,Get Along Little Doggies
  • Appalachian Mountain Dulcimer accompanied by guitar and violin
listening practice

Pharoah

Sanders

Foday Musa Suso

Listening Practice
  • [11] Samma means raining in Mandinka
  • Rain is a blessing that helps new life to grow and a hindrance that prevents a man from visiting his girlfriend.
  • Foday Musa Suso, Kora
  • Pharoah Sanders, Tenor Saxophone
  • M1831.M36 J35 CD3510
sources
Sources
  • Books
    • Nettl, Capwell, Bohlman, Wong and Turino: Excursions in World Music
    • Willoughby: The World of Music
    • Mickey Hart & Fredric Lieberman: Planet Drum
    • Jeff Todd Titon, ed.: Worlds of Music (3rd edition)
  • Web
    • http://music.acu.edu/www/iawm/pages/enhed.html
    • http://128.174.172.76/~mjwetzel/mjw.inhsCAR.html
    • http://www.pubaf.bnl.gov/pr/bnlpr092299.html
    • http://www.patsweb.com/Lightning.jpg
sources videos cds
Sources: Videos & CDs
  • Videos
    • The Nature of Music, RM Arts [ML2790 N478 1988]
    • Exploring the World of Music, vols. 1, 4[MT7 E97 1998 v.4]
    • Dizzy Gillespie: an all-star tribute to the jazz master[M1366 .G555 1989]
    • JVC video anthology of world music and dance; v.29 [M1627 .J4 1991 v. 19, 29]
    • Personal videos from Bali, Korea and Vietnam