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K. Arnold Chan, MD, ScD Harvard School of Public Health Channing Laboratory, Birgham & Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School. HIPAA and its Implications on Epidemiological Research Using Large Databases. 1. Brief outline of this presentation.

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slide1
K. Arnold Chan, MD, ScD

Harvard School of Public Health

Channing Laboratory,

Birgham & Women’s Hospital

and Harvard Medical School

HIPAA and its Implications on Epidemiological Research Using Large Databases

1

brief outline of this presentation
Brief outline of this presentation
  • Using large linked automated data for public health research
  • Data development processes to ensure HIPAA-compliance
  • Examples
  • Some thoughts
two types of data for public health research
Two types of data for public health research
  • Primary data
    • Prospectively collected
    • Well-designed data collection tool
    • Informed consent
  • Secondary data
    • Data originally collected for other purposes
    • May be proprietary
    • Privacy and confidentiality (particularly important if no prior authorization)
    • Different data systems
large linked healthcare databases
Large linked healthcare databases
  • Health insurance claims data
    • Medicaid
    • Medicare
    • Managed Care Organizations (MCO)
  • Automated medical records
  • Hospital / Clinic IT systems
  • Availability of written records
  • Need to contact patients / individuals ?
public health research within mcos
Public health research within MCOs
  • Harvard Community Health Plan (subsequently became Harvard Pilgrim HealthCare)
  • Kaiser Permanente (several states)
  • Group Health Cooperative (Seattle area)
  • Others
  • HMO Research Network
    • 10+ MCOs across the U.S.
public health research within mcos6
Public health research within MCOs
  • Different types of MCOs
    • Group model
    • Staff model
    • Different relationship with hospitals
    • Implications on data access
  • MCOs with research programs
    • Separate research departments
    • Full-time investigators and support staff
data elements in the mco data
Data elements in the MCO data
  • Demographic information
  • Membership
    • Start date, termination date, benefit plan, ...
  • Office visits
    • Type of visit, diagnosis(es), special procedures
  • Special examinations
    • Radiology, Laboratory examinations
  • Hospitalizations
  • Drug dispensings
  • Linkable by a unique ID
hipaa and research with databases
HIPAA and Research with Databases
  • Authorization from individual research subjects not feasible
  • Individual authorization may be waived by Institutional Review Board or Privacy Board
    • Minimal Risk
    • Data reported in aggregate fashion
      • No single-case report
    • “Minimum necessary” principle
    • De-identification
hipaa and research with databases9
HIPAA and Research with Databases
  • Single MCO studies
    • Investigators and research staff are MCO employees
  • Multiple-MCO studies
    • May involve transferral of data across MCOs or to a Data Center
  • Other types of studies not covered in this presentation
    • e.g. Generate a de-identified dataset for public or commercial use
hipaa and data development
HIPAA and data development
  • Do not move individual level data unless absolutely necessary
    • Generate summary tables at each study site
    • Combine the tables for final report
    • Smalley et al. Contraindicated use of cisapride: the impact of an FDA regulatory action. JAMA 2000; 284: 3036-9.
hipaa and data development12
HIPAA and data development
  • Randomly generated Study ID to replace True ID
    • Crosswalk between the two stored at secured location
    • Destroy the crosswalk after successful linkage of data and quality check
    • Implications for storage and back-up
hipaa and data development13
HIPAA and data development
  • Roll-up / transform variables
    • Age --> Age groups
    • National Drug Code --> Drug or Group of drugs
    • ICD-9 diagnosis code --> Disease

e.g. A man born on Dec 10, 1934 with diagnosis code xxx.yy received durg 55555-333-22

    • 65-70 y/o m with Heart Failure received Digoxin
hipaa and data development14
HIPAA and data development
  • Preserve temporal sequence of events

but disguise the real dates

  • e.g. Drug use during pregnancy study
    • 29 year-old received 55555-333-22 on Nov 25, 1999 and delivered a baby on Dec 10, 1999

-->

    • 26-30 year-old mother delivered in 1999, baby exposed to amoxicillin at -16 days
hipaa and data development15
HIPAA and data development
  • Only extract information relevant to the study
    • e.g. A study of osteoporosis does not require information on subjects' mental health status
  • Co-morbid conditions may be relevant
    • Use proxy measures to describe level of comorbidity
      • Charlson's Index (based on concomitant diagnoses)
      • Chronic Disease Score (based on co-medications)
hipaa and data development16
HIPAA and data development
  • Geocoding
    • Describe social-economic status of study subjects based on census tract data
    • Send out (Study ID, address) to a geocoding firm
    • (Study ID, X1, X2, X3) returned
      • X1 : education level
      • X2 : income level
      • X3 : race/ethnicity information
an example
An example

Finkelstein et al. Decreasing Antibiotic Use Among US Children: The Impact of Changing Diagnosis Patterns.Pediatrics 2003; 112: 620-7.

  • Data elements involved
    • Date of birth, gender
    • Membership
    • Drug dispensings
    • Diagnoses in close proximity to antibiotics dispensings
  • Data from nine MCOs
finkelstein et al pediatric antibiotics use study
Finkelstein et al. Pediatric antibiotics use study
  • Data development at each MCO
    • Extract antibiotics use information
    • Extract diagnosis of interest (infections)
    • Use date of birth, gender, and membership data to calculate person-time of interest
  • Refined, aggregate data forwarded to the Data Center
    • Rate of antibiotics use =

# of antibiotics use / 1,000 person-years

for each age-gender group

hipaa and data development19
HIPAA and data development
  • Individual identification is needed for certain types of research
    • Obtain medical records
    • Contact patient to conduct interview and/or request specimen
    • Linkage with external data
      • Cancer registry
      • National Death Index
hipaa and data development20
HIPAA and data development
  • The process
    • Data extraction, transformation, reduction, and de-identification carried out at each MCO
    • Governed by State laws and local HIPAA-compliant Standard Operating Procedures
    • Principle of Limited Dataset / Minimum necessary
  • The goal
    • Highly processed and de-identified data available for concatenation across study sites and complex analyses
k anonymity and large datasets
k-anonymity and large datasets
  • The goal
    • A de-identified dataset at a certain level of individual anonymity

A 43 year-old man with hypertension, diabetes, and anxiety, taking atenolol, rosiglitazone, and lorazepam

vs.

A man 40-45 taking a beta-blocker and a thiazolidenedione

hipaa data storage and access
HIPAA, Data Storage and Access
  • Implications on Data Backup Plans
    • Data need to be destroyed after the report is published
  • Data only used to support pre-defined analyses
  • Ancillary analysis are possible after IRB review and approval
epidemiology studies using large databases
Epidemiology studies using large databases
  • In the old days ...
    • Give me all the data, do what I say ...
    • What if the investigator / reviewer want to do THIS analysis ?
    • Use existing datasets to test new hypothesis
  • Good research practice
    • Define necessary data elements according to research protocol
    • Pre-defined analytic plan
epidemiology studies using large databases24
Epidemiology studies using large databases
  • Keys to protection of human subjects
    • Competent, responsible investigators and staff
    • IRB review and oversight
    • Data development guidelines
      • e.g. Good Epidemiology Practice
    • Information technology
  • Some reasonable rules/guidelines are better than no guideline