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Dimensions of Culture. Meeting 10. Culture Types. Mediated stories and images Culture industry as economic resource Business / corporate culture; may conflict with employee’s societal culture Organizational culture - set of meanings Groups w/ characteristic culture (religious)

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culture types
Culture Types
  • Mediated stories and images
  • Culture industry as economic resource
  • Business / corporate culture; may conflict with employee’s societal culture
  • Organizational culture - set of meanings
  • Groups w/ characteristic culture (religious)
  • Families with traditions
culture transmission
Culture Transmission
  • Culture is patterns of meanings embodied in symbols
  • Primary symbol is language
  • Print capitalism created imagined communities
  • Transnational TV, Internet creating world language for business in English
protection strategies for cultural products
Protection Strategies for cultural products
  • Quotas - limit imports, preserve expressions of national identity
  • Subsidies and grants - government support for film and TV development
  • Regional alliances - co-produced films
  • Program adaptation - use formats and production values on local productions
resistance measures
Resistance Measures
  • Recording own videos (Brazil)
  • Ownership of TV channels (Isreal)
  • Legislation to prohibit advertising in splilt-run editions with US (Canada)
  • Ban on direct broadcast satellite (China, India)
journalist s role
Journalist’s Role
  • Empiricist concept of objectivity under attack for assuming a single truth
  • Enduring values built into news judgment; values and opinions enter unconsciously
  • News culture is revealed in formats: voiceovers, outtakes, sound bites, stand-ups
cultural conflict
Cultural Conflict
  • Many groups feel they are buried by global culture and corporations
  • Kurds have no nation-state
  • Med-TV establish as voice of Kurdish people in all countries
  • Discontinued for arousing anger
  • Cultures struggle to preserve a distinctive identity
hybrid culture and media
Hybrid Culture and Media
  • Melting pot concept - give up some cultural distinction for democratic rights
  • Hybridity occurs when traditions are modified
  • Cultural identity is fluid and dynamic
  • Histories change and develop as they blend
  • Dominant culture takes on traditions of migrants
  • Media fusion in all forms directed a culture-specific audiences
culture onion
Culture Onion
  • Symbols - words, pictures, gestures, objects that are learned; global brands
  • Heroes - possess prized characteristics; serve as role models for behavior
  • Rituals - essential collective activities
  • Values - broad tendencies to prefer certain state of affairs over another
cultural nuances
Cultural Nuances

Selective perception - focus on certain features of environment excluding others

What does it mean to perceive things according to our cultural map?

Stereotyping - put people into categories

Why is necessary for advertising to stereotype?

thinking patterns intellectual styles
Thinking patterns, Intellectual styles
  • Linear, external logic, intuition, duality & digital thinking is Western

What are bipolar scales?

  • Pattern recognition, synchronicity and analog are Eastern
  • Intellectual styles: Gallic, Teutonic, Saxonic, Nipponic
  • Learning as critical thinking or memorizing
body language
Body Language
  • Facial expressions
  • Behavioral habits
  • Gestures: greetings, beckoning, insulting, touching
  • Use of space and closeness between people
  • Visual point of view
  • Music and rhythm
color
Color
  • Relativist - local situation has large impact
  • Universalist - ignore taboos, go with trends

Rules: Choose national colors; blue for Northern hemisphere, green for southern

color taboos
Color Taboos

White - funerals in China, red for brides

Black - mourning, widow wear in Europe, aggression for teens

Orange - trendy, extreme sports, boats, highway workers

Yellow - bottom of preference list (yellow journalism, yellow Jewish star, cowardly)

Silver - space-age, high tech, neutral, elegance; most popular auto color

Purple - Royalty

cultural context
Cultural Context

High-context - information part of internalized message; implicit. Symbolic advertising. Eastern

Low-context - explicit verbal message. Yes/no orientation. Western.

Mixed - France has blend of hi-lo institutions and situations

dimensions of time
Dimensions of Time

Includes biological, personal, metaphysical, micro, sync, sacred, profane

  • Long vs short term thinking
  • Time as healer
  • Orientation toward past (Europe), present (East where all are equal), future (disposable in US)
  • Linear vs Circular
  • Monochronic (low context) vs polychronic
  • Cause & effect vs holistic
  • Time as symbol (cue up = M time)
relationship to nature
Relationship to Nature
  • Mastery over nature - man must conquer (US)
  • Harmony with nature - man co-exists with; no distinction between human life, nature and supernatural (Japan)
  • Subjugation to nature -man dominated by (Africa)
hofstede s 5 dimensions
Hofstede’s 5 Dimensions
  • Power Distance - social hierarchy vs. equality
  • Individualism (private & public) / collectivism (particularistic, common good)
  • Masculinity (achievement values) /femininity (caring values)
hofstede
Hofstede

4. Uncertainty avoidance - feel threatened by ambiguity; conflict and competition are threatening.

  • Strong UA countries use hands, drive fast

5. Long-Term - persistence, ordering by status, thrift, sense of shame. Vs.

Short-term orientation - personal steadiness, protecting face, tradition, reciprocation of gifts

cultural identity in slovenia
Cultural Identity in Slovenia
  • Distancing selves from ‘Balkans’ of violence and chaos, poverty, dirt
  • Young cannot identify with parents communism or Yugo-nostalgia
  • 1980s - art and rock bands pop icons
  • 2002 - youth apolitical, consumer-oriented
  • Globalized culture is pro-West everything