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Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA. Biotechnology. The use of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a product Foods Vaccines Antibiotics Vitamins Biodegradation Selective breeding. Genetic Engineering. Manipulating an organism’s genome to

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Presentation Transcript
  • The use of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a product
    • Foods
    • Vaccines
    • Antibiotics
    • Vitamins
    • Biodegradation
  • Selective breeding
genetic engineering
Genetic Engineering
  • Manipulating an organism’s genome to
    • alter microbes, plants, and animals for our benefit
    • correct genetic defects in humans
other uses of genetic technology
Other Uses of Genetic Technology
  • Genetic technologies also used to identify individuals - UA part of Shoah Project to ID Holocaust victims (Wildcat, October 4, 2006)
  • UA project to trace ancestry
  • Diagnosis and epidemiology of disease
useful properties of dna
Useful Properties of DNA
  • DNA sequences specify gene locations and protein amino acid sequence
  • Restriction endonucleases cut at specific nucleotides; size of pieces gives us information about DNA sequence
  • Nucleotides hydrogen bond with complementary nucleotides
  • DNA hybridization allows recognition of specific genes

A probe is a piece of complementary DNA of known sequence, labeled with radioactivity so it can be detected

dna fingerprinting epidemiology
DNA Fingerprinting: Epidemiology
  • Comparison of DNA from
    • patients
    • food
useful properties of dna9
Useful Properties of DNA
  • The complementary strands of DNA can be separated and re-associated by heating and cooling
  • One strand of DNA specifies the sequence of the other strand
    • mRNA specifies the sequence of the gene (DNA)
polymerase chain reaction pcr amplifies dna
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Amplifies DNA
  • Primers specify what DNA is copied
pcr amplifies dna
PCR Amplifies DNA
  • Diagnosis
  • Epidemiology
  • Genetic engineering
recombinant dna
Recombinant DNA
  • Combining DNA from two different organisms
useful properties of dna13
Useful Properties of DNA
  • Restriction endonucleases can cut DNA at specific sites, leaving sticky ends for insertion of new DNA
selection of altered cells
Selection of Altered Cells
  • Antibiotic resistance gene used to identify recombinant cells
genetically modified organisms
Genetically Modified Organisms
  • Herbicide-resistant plants
  • Bt cotton/corn (toxin gene from Bacillus thuringiensis that kills insects)
  • Flavr-Savr tomatoes
  • Golden rice (beta-carotene)
  • Plant-based vaccines
transgenic animals
Transgenic Animals
  • “Knock-out” and transgenic mice: used to study immune system and genetic diseases
  • Pigs: blood clotting Factor VIII, organs for transplantation
  • Others: Human IL-2 (cancer), albumin (blood volume), growth hormone, tPA (dissolves clots)
genetically engineering humans
Genetically Engineering Humans
  • Bone marrow supplies stem cells
  • Successful replacement of gene for enzyme needed for lymphocyte development
difficulties in genetically engineering humans
Difficulties in Genetically Engineering Humans
  • Inserting gene in correct cells
  • Inserting gene so it is expressed correctly
    • Orientation
    • Regulation
  • Controlling virus vector
  • Ethical issues
other issues
Other Issues
  • How will genetically engineered organisms affect environment?
  • Spread of genes to other organisms?
  • Who will decide?