While You’re Waiting… Complete the following sentence stems: The student whose behavior is of most concern to me is… Describe the specific inappropriate actions (Avoid labels and generalities) that the pupil displays on a regular basis. My best guess as to the cause of his/her pattern of behavior is that s/he… Things that seem to “set off” or instigate the behaviors include… A signal or sign that cues me of an impending behavioral episode is… My usual response to his/her inappropriate actions is to…
Why Does This Kid Keep Doing That? Putting the pieces together to figure out the reason(s) behind inappropriate behavior patterns.
The intervention(s) that we select will be dependant upon the reason(s) for the behavior pattern.
Why does that kid keep doing that? (to me) • In your teams:Compile a listing of the many reasons why kids might fail to quickly, fully, and continually comply with teacher directions and/or classroom expectations. • Phases of the moon • Partly cloudy, cloudy, rainy, sunny, snowy, hazy, foggy, warm, chilly, hot, cold, calm, breezy, windy, humid, dry, … (Gordon on teaching: “I am the weather.”) • Televised wrestling replacing Mr. Rogers • Space aliens disguising themselves as children • Mimes(my personal view) • Something in the water.
So…What did you come up with? • Perhaps I’m unknowingly involved in one of those “reality shows” I see on TV. • Part of a vast conspiracy to control the world. • (It’s not paranoia when they really are after you.) • Payback for my actions in a previous life. • A side effect of global warming. • I’m stuck in a bad dream and can’t wake up.
Ages and Stages? • Transitional phases of human development? • -Late Infancy to Toddlerhood • Sleep/Toilet training (“Superego” meets “Id”) Thank your parents • Limitations placed on newfound mobility (“Superego v. Id”) • Learns to say the power word… NO! • -(pre)Adolescence? • -Old age? • -Newly Married.
Ages & Stages(Continued) • Some characteristics that arecommon and expectedat certain agescan spawn behavior that is viewed by adults as being “defiant” or “disruptive”. • An awareness of these expected age-based traits can help us develop greater tolerance…and remind us to make use of positive and respectful interventions that TEACH more appropriate ways of handling situations.
Common Developmental Traits That Can Lead To Non-Compliance - Ages 6 to 12^ • Wants to determine behavioral boundaries (for psychological comfort). • Tests behavioral boundaries and constraints placed by authority. • Asks “Why?” often • Ego-centric: Sees self as center of the universe. • Wants desirable things NOW. • Wants to do non-desirable tasks on own schedule • Difficulty seeing the view/rights of others. • Often doesn’t want rules, turn-taking, sharing to apply to him/her. • Thinks people (including teachers) often pick on him/her. • Reacts to perceivedunfairnessor lack of support by withdrawing or complaining. • Possessive & Impulsive • Thinks his/her needs & desires should come before those of others. • “It’s mine.”, “I had it first.”, “I want it!” • Wants success at meeting goals to come easily • Complains that tasks are “too hard”. • Expects to win games/raffle. *So what behaviors do you often see that reflect these traits?
Common Developmental Traits That Can Lead To Non-Compliance - Ages 13 to 18^ • Wants to make decisions influencing his/her life • Peer group influence exceeds that of adults • Engages in actions to earn acceptance of highly perceived peers • Attempts to gain positive attention from those to whom s/he is romantically attracted • Highly concerned about personal appearance • Unconcerned about neatness of surroundings • Needs to project appearance of competence even if not so • “I know it already” attitude • Views education unrelated to interests as “boring” • Frontal lobe in boys probably poorly developed in comparison to girls • lowered sensitivity to feelings of others • less awareness/concern for safety of self & others *What behaviors do you commonly witness that reflect these traits?
Other Reasons For Defiant Behavior • Hasn’t learned behaviors that meet school expectations. • Learned other "right ways" to behave in certain situations. Their (re)actions reflect practices common in • low income areas • culturally different / immigrant households. • Emulation of behavior/responses modeled in the homes or neighborhoods of “the disenfranchised”. (A learned pattern of confrontational behavior when dealing with authority figures in demanding situations). • Knows the “appropriate” behavior that is expected, but hasn’t had sufficientpractice to perform it proficiently.
A few more reasons • Physical influences (SID, ADHD, Tourettes, medication reactions) • Group influence/peer pressure • Rebellion against authority/striving for increased decision making influence over one’s life. • His/her initial attempts at performing the desired behavior didn’t work, so s/he overgeneralizes and assumes that it will never work with anyone at anytime in any place. • Surging emotions interfere with the display of the behavior. When humans are under stress, they often revert to behaviors that are most familiar in those situations.
Times When We Play a Significant Role in the Appearance of Defiant Actions? • Avoiding failure: • -feeling “dumb” in comparison to others. • -failing publicly around non-accepting audience. • Preoccupied by outside pressures & our direction becomes “The straw that broke the camel’s back”. (“Displaced anger”) • Fulfilling a role assigned (& maintained) by significant adults(parents & educators) -bad -dumb -rude.
Frustration when educators interfere with their present pursuit of a desired goal (completing a task, reaching a stopping point in a game, socializing, pestering another). • Directives & assignments viewed as being: • -wrong • -unreasonable • -waste of time • ANDone’s contributions/suggestions/contrary views given no consideration by the adult. • A general dislikefor each other between the student and educational professional has become ingrained. Each plays a continuing role that instigates and escalates problems.
Behavior & Disabilities^ • According to IDEA, we must engage in investigative procedures to determine the reason for persistent misbehavior IF: • The student already has an identified disability (any one). • If we believe that that student may have a disability (be it an emotional/psychological/behavioral disorder OR another disability that might be a contributing factor to the inappropriate actions). • The combination of procedures is known collectively as “FBA”. • FBA?
An FBA is a set of precise and complex procedures for… • …helping the Committeeon Special Education arrive at the wrong conclusion with great certainty. • …determining the motivation, function, or cause of the aberrant pattern of behavior. (Which assists us in devising effective interventions.) • Some investigative methods that might be included in an “FBA” are…? • Medical evaluation • Psychological evaluation • Psycho-Social Assessment (“ecological” assessment) • A-B-C Analysis • Determination of the student’s “Mistaken Goals” • (Oddly, rarely conducted nowadays) • General data collection (behavioral recording, checklists).
^ • Steps for conducting all the evaluation procedures that follow (A-B-C, “Mistaken Goals”, “Behavioral recording”) can be found at www.BehaviorAdvisor.com • Now for the A-B-C method for gaining insight into a behavior’s etiology. • Professionals engage in the A-B-C process in order to determine the cause of repeated behaviors that take the same (or very similar) form and tend to happen under the same circumstances. • This process is part of the evaluation procedures of the “ABA” orientation. • ABA? .
The World According to ABA^ • All behavior is… • learned. • A particular behavior is initiated by something that happens previous to it. • Behaviors continue to exist because they either: • bring desired benefits (“positive reinforcement”)or • fend off undesired events (“negative reinforcement”). • Behaviors can be built, modified, or extinguished by skillfully manipulating the events and circumstances that surround them. • We are one of those “events”. • Behaviors are best understood by using the “A-B-C” method of analysis.
A,B,C…it’s as easy as 1,2,3^ • “There you go again. Why do you always…?” • An Antecedent(stimulus) sparks a Behavior that is maintained by a Consequence.
In order to prevent inappropriate behaviors from being exhibited ^ • Assure that the Antecedent does not occur. • Prompt (and promptly reinforce)a “Replacement Behavior”that meets the same physical and/or emotional need as the undesirable one.
In order to “extinguish” a behavior, deprive it of what keeps it going. ^ • Disallowthe usual reinforcing Consequence (the “benefit”, “reward”, or “payout”) and respond to the behavior in what manner? • Punish it • what is available to us often doesn’t outweigh benefits of behavior • generally ineffective and fraught with hazards. • Ignore it • Often difficult to do • The practice is plagued with problemssuch as? • Other pupils complain • Other kids think that it is OK to emulate this behavior • Some behaviors are self stimulating • We frequently witness a “behavior burst”.
How Does One Ignore Effectively?^ Ignoring will cause behaviors to eventually die out (“extinguish”)IF: • The student desires your attention • All attention from all other sources is blocked • You can withhold attention during the “behavior burst” which often escalates to “extinction-induced aggression” before ceasing.
Ignore The Behavior While Telling Others What You’re Doing • “Thank you. Yes, I’m aware of that behavior and I will be addressing it later. I’m definitely not letting it go. The rules still apply to everyone. I will be dealing with that person’s behavior later during…(some non-academic and desirable activity).Now let’s return to our activity.” .
Situation: The teacher asks a question to the class. Raheem quickly yells out an answer. The teacher tells Raheem to raise his hand from now on (as s/he always tells him to do), but thanks him for the answer and goes on with the lesson. • Your Team’s Task: • Identify the • Antecedent • Behavior • Consequence • Be ready to report how the teacher might manipulate the “A” and “C”. Also identify a replacement behavior that meets the child’s need for attention, power, prestigue, money, sensory stimulation…whatever the identified need.
Some Possibilities • The teacher could eliminate the antecedent by calling on particular students. Do so after the question is asked, not before (Jacob Kounin’s “group alerting” technique)...or else all the other students will let their minds wander.OR Students could be given dry eraser boards and pens so that everyone shows their answer on command. • The teacher might also change the consequence by ignoring the answer("I only hear the answer of students whoraise their hands and wait to be called upon. I'm looking for a hand.") or punishing "calling out" behavior (while praising the hand raising of other students). • The teacher might also work with Raheem to develop a new behavior to get the reward/reinforcement. Each time Raheem raises his hand (whether he knows the answer or not, and whether he is called upon by the teacher or not) he gets a point. Twenty points allows him to present information to the class tomorrow, or gives him five minutes of personal time with the teacher (allowing him to receive the desired rewards of either appearing knowledgeable or gaining personal contact with the teacher).OR Teach him a special hand raise when you WILLcall on him (limited to two per day).
Rudolf Dreikurs’ Model^ • The greatest human need is “to belong”. If we don’t feel accepted and valued in an important life setting, we react negatively… progressively so, if issues remain unresolved. • When kids don’t feel valued by teachers and peers at school, they engage in one or more of four (4) “Mistaken Goals”: • Seeking ATTENTION(If not getting enough to feel accepted and valued) • Seeking POWER(Accepting negative attention) • Seeking REVENGE(Resentment and anger from losing the power struggle) • Displaying INADEQUACY(Lack of success brings an end to the pursuit to belong).
It’s in your hands… • Right now, we’ll take a quick look at some slides outlining the Mistaken Goals method of assessment. • Semi-complete versions of them can be found inside your packet. • Later, they’ll serve as resources as we use the content of these slides to: • Determine the mistaken goal of a behavior viewed on a video • Devise interventions for that mistaken goal.
ATTENTION SEEKING^ • Pesky behavior surfaces when kids aren't getting the amount of positive recognition they desire for their attempts to “be good”.(e.g., starting a task, remaining on-task, completing work, arriving on time, being nice to others). • It is especially prominent in kids who: • Struggle academically • Don’t’ get much positive attention at home • Desire it from you • Have learned to be satisfied with negative attention • These kids feel important if the teacher pays attention to them and provides them with extra services. • They might: -ask irrelevant questions -call out frequently -fail to engage in the task or stay focused unless the teacher hovers over them • Assessing whether we’re right:Address the mistaken goal in a friendly, respectful, and non threatening manner. This course of action removes the power of the mistaken goal. Try this phrasing using concerned, polite, non sarcastic wording and tone of voice. "Could it be that you'd like me to spend more time with you?“ • Verification:verbal acknowledgement or non-verbal look of recognition.
An Example of an Attention-Seeking Pattern of Behavior • While we watch the “Amy” video clip… • Identify the actions that evidence this stage • Consider how we might intervene in order to address: • Her academic concerns(assistance) • Her need for positive contact(attention).
SEEKING POWER (our defiant kids)^ • If attention seeking actions don't work, resentful youngsters may try to make your professional life miserable. • They might: -argue -contradict -lie -refuse to work or follow directions -throw a temper tantrum -tell you to "go take a flying leap" -behave hostilely toward you • Assessing whether we’re right:Using concerned, polite, non-sarcastic wording and tone of voice, say: "When you try to prove that nobody can make you do things you don't want to do, does that mean you’re upset with us?”.
A “Power Struggle” with a “Defiant Kid” • Which possible precipitating factors for the “off task” behavior should the teacher have considered before intervening? What might have contributed to the student’s failure to copy from the board as others were doing during that time? • Does it appear as if the student and teacher have established a warm personal connection to one another? Is the classroom a welcoming, validating, and valuing place for this youngster? • Which of the teacher’s interventions were counterproductive? What facets of her approach contributed to the decay of the situation? • What might this teacher have done, or what might she do in the future, to avoid the problems we witnessed, address the “mistaken goal”, and accomplish her instructional goal? • Consider how she might address: • His academic needs • His need to avoid “losing face” (being the recipient of a public shaming). *This video is available from National Educational Services and is part of the “Circle of Courage” (Brendtro, Brokenleg, & VanBockern) training packet.
We have met the enemy… and it is us.(Pogo) • When we set out to“Teach ‘em a lesson.”,we don’t. • Teachers who didn’t receive adequate behavior management training tend to (over/under)react to inappropriate student actions in either“Hapless” or “Hurtful”(ala “PsychoTeacher”)ways. • Support and training for becoming a “Helpful” educator can be found at www.BehaviorAdvisor.com.
Recognize that some issue is affecting performance…Such as? • Feeling ill. • Left glasses at home. • Unable to do the assignment. • Outside concerns brought into the classroom. • Continuing issues with you that need to be resolved in order to build/maintain positive feelings about each other.
Suggestions. • Deal with issues in private. • Stay in control of one’s emotions. • “The greatest lesson we can learn is infinite patience & never-ending persistence.”(Franklin Delano Roosevelt –”FDR”) • -Use a civil tone of voice • -Avoid “put downs” • -Avoid saying that a task is “simple” or “easy” • -not EZ for LD kid who forgot how to do it • -not worthy of being taught in school if it’s “easy”. • Never use a frontal attack on a superior opponent(or anyone else for that matter). • Make use of the positive strategies from past and future SPED 702 sessions.
Research On PublicBelittlement / Verbal Bullying • When people were publicly chastised, only 1 in 10 improved his/her performance. 9 of 10 performed worse the next time around. • Publicly criticized individuals: -felt increased self doubtregarding their abilities -resentedthe approach taken to address their actions/performance -felt dislike toward the ones who chastised them .
Positive Feedback Versus Criticism Ratio • Real life is 3-1 • Morale problems set in at 2-1 • Despair starts at 1-1 • To promote appropriate behavior and positive self concept, the PBIS.com site recommends a ratio of 5 positive comments for every negative one (other sources recommend 8-30) with frequent contact for each student. “Frequent” meaning... • (at least once every 5 minutes) • Is you worst behaved student receiving a 5-1 ratio? (or even 3-1?)
SEEKING REVENGE (our aggressive kids)^ • If attention or power seeking doesn't work, kids may seek revenge against you or others. Their belief:"I can only feel significant if I hurt others. I'm just doing what they've done to me. I don't care if I'm disliked. They deserve this behavior. It is a victory to be disliked and to undergo punishment if I have retaliated and made them suffer.“ (Typically not done during a moment of confrontation. The vengeful act happens in a concealed manner or at an unexpected time.) • They might: • -treat others cruelly -set themselves up to be punished via the use of aggression -engage in pranks or vandalism behind your back • Assessing whether we’re right:In concerned, polite wording and a non-sarcastic tone of voice, say:"When you did that, were you trying to: ? • hurt me because you're angry withme?”.
DISPLAYING INADEQUACY^ • Underneath the bravado of seeking revenge is deep discouragement. The rejection by others eventually makes them feel worthless. They think: "Why even try anymore?“ • Discouraged kids guard what is left of their self esteem by removing themselves from public and social tests. They think:"If I pretend to be stupid or refuse to cooperate, people will leave me alone.“ • They might: -avoid interaction & become “invisible” in the class -passively refuse to participate in class activities -request to be left alone -sit silently and engage in no activities Assessing whether we’re right:In concerned, polite wording and a non-sarcastic tone of voice, say:"When you pretend that you're not capable of doing this work, are you trying to make me: go away?“.
An “Inadequacy” Episode (or two) • Gayle’s spelling test- Our student is behind in reading, and struggles with written language. • Shelly - Lunch time for a student in the inadequacy stage.
Another Way toDetermine The Reason^ • If the youngster doesn’t respond to your assessment question, you can still identify the “Mistaken Goal" via these guidelines: • If you feel:The student is probably seeking:Annoyed ?Threatened ? Hurt ? Disheartened (at inability to reach this student)? If a student:Then the probable goal is: Stops a behavior, but then repeats it?Refuses to stop and increases the misbehavior?Becomes violent or hostile? Refuses to cooperate, participate, put forth effort, or interact? What might be the mistaken goal for “David”?.
Intervening With Mistaken Goal Kids^ 1. Explain that s/he is not the 1st kid to feel this way…Experts know about this way of feeling/acting, have studied it for generations, and know of better ways for youngsters to meet their needs. Help him/her devise aplan to meet the needs in more appropriate ways. • 2. Change your actions when confronted by the various behaviors: • If the mistaken goal arises again, avoidreacting in the same old way • Draw out, & then positively recognize, the desired replacement behavior • 3. Build a positive bond between you and the student. How so? (Teams) • Create an extensive history of positive interactions • Use sandwiches when criticizing or offering suggestions • Be alert for opportunities to “catch ‘em being good” • State your belief in the youngster’s ability to succeed (academics & behavior) • Interact in a manner that allows the student to feel valued and respected • 4. Create Esprit de Corp in the classroom. How do you do so? (Teams) • Conduct interesting cooperative group activities • Allow only supportive comments in class. No put-downs • Compete against other classrooms • Implement a group reward system
Specific Interventions for Attention Seeking^ • Provide the youngster with acceptable ways of gaining the attention that is sought. • Role play those new ways to increase the chances of them being used. • Givesignals/hints to prompt the behavior in real life situations. • Set up a plan with the youngster which allows him/her to earn time with you. • Provide the youngster with supports(e.g., a peer who will help the youngster if academic difficulties occur, a secret signal, etc.) • Remind the youngster of what must be done to get your attention (e.g., raisehand). If this action is not yet a usual response for the youngster, upon it’s display give your attentionimmediately(in order to reinforce that correct behavior). • Verbally praise the youngster for displaying the appropriate behavior. Wean the student from the immediatereaction on your part by telling him/her that you see his/her appropriate behaviorand that you'll be there in just a minute(after attending to the other hand raisers first, or finishing the writing of a note, etc.) .
Specific Interventions for Power Seeking^ • Avoid power struggles • Stay out of the "Conflict Cycle“ & prevent escalation of the event. • Don’t find fault. Find solutions. Use “problem solving” (www.behavioradvisor.com) • Recognize the youngster's need for power and influence. • Involve the student in making decisions. • Give responsibilities and positions of influence to the youngster. • Use "I messages" (covered later today) followed by questions • "I'm hearing some offensive language. Could I hear that opinion restated in more restrained terms?".
Specific Interventions for Revenge Seeking^ • Design activities in which the student and others (perhaps you)interact positively and cooperatively. • Bond with the youngster. • Give him/her the time of day. • Build a friendlyrelationship. • Treat him/her respectfully and supportively • Expect resistance to your efforts at first. Be unconditionally and persistently respectful and supportive. Don’t be a punching bag, but be politely assertive in your reactions.
Specific Interventions forKids Who Display Inadequacy^ • Offer encouragement and support to the youngster. Do not criticize. • Focus on the putting forth of effort, not accuracy or grades. • Set up the youngster for success and recognize his/her efforts. • Blame any lack of success on the curriculum, materials, or the way you taught the lesson, but do notblame the youngster. • If minimal effort(or less) was exerted, positively acknowledge it and focus on ways to improve in that area. Devise ways that you can support heightened exertion. • Have the student self-evaluate, identifying what s/he did correctly and incorrectly. Then have him/her develop a planfor improvement (or have him/her redo the task well). Assist as needed. • NEVER show frustration. This reaction may reinforce a sense of worthlessness.
Other ideas for motivating the unmotivated (Displaying Inadequacy) • Modify materials and presentation. • Ensure understanding by asking the student to repeat the directions in his/her own words. • Check in early with the student to assure understanding and task engagement. • Promote motivation by: • Focusing on effort rather than accuracy • Reminiscing about earlier successes that resulted from effort • Relating material to the student’s life & interests • Assign peer helpers/cross age tutors.
Psycho-Social Assessment • This information gathering process supports the Mistaken Goals and A-B-C assessments, and helps us to “fill in the blanks”. While watching the multi-faceted information gathering process, • Conduct an A-B-C analysis for the two incidents with the teacher (floor hockey game, classroom independent work). • (Scott DVD – 3 minute/Teams) • While working in your teams for 10 minutes, please identify: • The “Mistaken Goal” (if apparent) • Other possible reasons (as per the previous two slides) • Services that might be recommended • Interventions & strategies.
OK, now I know that the student is defiant or aggressive because: • Hasn’t learned behaviors that meet school expectations • Learned other "right ways" to behave in certain situations • low income • culturally different / immigrant • Knows the “appropriate” behavior, but hasn’t had sufficient practice to do it proficiently. • His/her initial attempts didn’t work, so s/he overgeneralizes and assumes that it will never work • Surging emotions interfere with the display of the behavior • Now What? .
What’s the job of a teacher? • Teach ‘em what they don’t yet know • …but what and how (behaviorally speaking)? • Reflective decision making • Problem solving • Social skills • Anger management • Conflict resolution • Character education, in order to: • Provide a solid foundation on which to base the newly acquired social-behavior skills • Prevent a self-serving display of appropriate behavior .