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Vertebral Column. Avinash Bharadwaj Human Structure and Development 212 Week 3 Semester 1, 2004. A Long Story. From a stiff internal support (notochord)… … “uniform” vertebral column of fishes… …specialisations for terrestrial life … to the erect human column.

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vertebral column

Vertebral Column

Avinash Bharadwaj

Human Structure and Development 212

Week 3

Semester 1, 2004

a long story
A Long Story
  • From a stiff internal support (notochord)…
  • … “uniform” vertebral column of fishes…
  • …specialisations for terrestrial life
  • … to the erect human column.
  • Did it all begin with locomotor needs?
  • Locomotion in fishes and humans – little simlarity if at all!
  • How evolution uses available resources!
the human vertebral column
The Human Vertebral Column

C

  • Cervical (cervix = neck)
  • Thoracic
  • Lumbar
  • Sacrum
  • Coccyx

T

L

S

Co

curvatures
Curvatures

“Head holding”

Primary and Secondary

Sitting

Standing

Walking

a generalised vertebra
A Generalised Vertebra
  • Weight bearing
  • Protection for spinal cord
  • Attachments for muscles and ligaments

Superior

Lateral

a generalised vertebra6
A Generalised Vertebra
  • Neural Arch
    • Spine
    • Lamina
    • Transverse Process
    • Pedicle
  • Body

Developmental terminology slightly different!

a generalised vertebra7
A Generalised Vertebra
  • Articular processes and facets
  • Notches
a generalised vertebra8
A Generalised Vertebra
  • Canal
  • Spinal cord and nerves
  • Meninges
regional features
Regional Features

C

  • Canal
  • Transverse process
    • Foramen
    • Costal and transverse elements
  • Spine

T

L

Do not memorise now! Lab exercise!

atypical vertebrae
Atypical Vertebrae
  • Transitional areas
  • C 1 and 2, C 7
  • Upper and lower thoracic
  • L 5
slide11

Joints

  • Zygapophysial (facet joints – synovial)
  • Intervertebral discs (symphyses)
  • Ligaments
    • Locations and names
  • Also note intervertebral foramina
the intervertebral disc
The Intervertebral Disc
  • Annulus fibrosus
  • Nucleus pulposus

White fibrocartilage

Deformable tissue

slide13

Movements

  • Limitations and summation
  • The “motion segment” (Unit of movement)
  • Flexion and extension
  • Lateral flexion
  • Rotational movement
    • Torsion of the disc
    • Orientation of facets
slide14

Muscles

  • “Extrinsic” : Belong to the limbs
  • Intrinsic
    • Long and short
    • Superficial and deep
    • Many segments / few segments / one segment
    • Spine to spine / spine to transverse process / transverse pr. to transverse process
  • Unilateral (one-sided) / Bilateral actions
  • Once more… concept vs detail
development
Development
  • Paraxial mesoderm
  • Segmentation – somites
  • More somites than ‘visible’ segments
  • Occipital region  caudal end
  • (…pre-occipital region…)
  • Somite
    • Sclerotome
    • Dermomyotome
segmental sclerotomes

A

A

A

B

B

B

C

C

C

Segmental Sclerotomes
  • Each vertebra : Two segments
  • Nerves are segmental
  • Arteries are intersegmental
comparative features
Comparative Features
  • Beware of generalisations!
    • Vertebrae : Complex structures
  • Invertebrate locomotion
    • Muscle contraction  shortening of body
  • Notochord
    • Stiffness : flexion of body
  • Vertebrae
    • Greater strength
    • Levers for muscles
fishes
Fishes
  • Buoyancy
  • Uniform vertebral structure – well, almost!
  • No “neck”
amphibia
Amphibia
  • Gravity and limbs
  • Single cervical vertebra
  • “Trunk” vertebrae
  • Single sacral vertebra
reptiles
Reptiles
  • Terrestrial
  • Distinct neck
  • Stronger limbs
  • Tremendous variation
birds
Birds
  • Rigid back
    • Number of fused trunk vertebrae
  • Long neck
    • 15 – 20 vertebrae
mammals
Mammals
  • Regional specialisation
  • Epiphyses (?Embryonic source)
  • 7 Cervical vertebrae as a rule
  • Approx 20 trunk vertebrae
    • Thoracic
    • Lumbar
  • Swingers and jumpers
    • Thoracic and lumbar proportions
  • Human vertebral column and other primates

Thank You