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Problem Solving And Decision Making. Chapter 8. Definition. Problem solving refers to active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily attainable. Types of Problems (Greeno). Problems of Inducing Structure Problems of Arrangement Problems of Transformation.

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Presentation Transcript
definition
Definition
  • Problem solving refers to active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily attainable.
types of problems greeno
Types of Problems (Greeno)
  • Problems of Inducing Structure
  • Problems of Arrangement
  • Problems of Transformation
approaches to problem solving
Approaches to Problem Solving
  • Trial & Error
  • Heuristics
    • Forming Subgoals (Tower of Hanoi)
    • Working Backwards (Water Lilies)
    • Using Analogies (Tumor)
    • Reenvisioning the Problem
barriers to effective problem solving
Barriers to Effective Problem Solving
  • Irrelevant (Distracting) Information
  • Functional Fixedness (Screw Driver)
  • Mental Set
  • Unnecessary Constraints
decision making
Decision Making
  • Two types of decisions
    • Making choices (selecting among alternatives)
    • Taking chances (deciding amidst uncertainty)
selecting among alternatives
Selecting Among Alternatives
  • Strategies
    • Additive
    • Subtractive (Elimination of Aspects)
making risky decisions
Making “Risky” Decisions
  • Risky Decisions (Tversky & Kahneman)
    • Factors Influencing Risky Decisions
      • Using Probabilities
        • Expected Value
        • Subjective Utility
      • Factors that Affect Probability Estimates
        • Heuristics
          • Availability
          • Representativeness
        • Ignoring Base Rates
        • The Conjunction Fallacy
        • Alternative Outcomes Effect
      • Framing the Question
humans as decision makers
Classic View

Irrational

Prone to errors & mistakes

Mentally limited

Evolutionary View

Specialized cognition is adaptive

Rational

Fast and Frugal heuristics work

Humans as Decision Makers

Dual Process Theories

Intuitive Thinking

Rational Thinking

reducing regret after decisions

$20

$1

Reducing Regret after Decisions

Told next person

tasks were fun

and interesting

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Asked how

much they

enjoyed experiment

Boring

Tasks

Told next person

tasks were fun

and interesting

making decisions in groups
Making Decisions in Groups
  • Group Polarization
  • Groupthink
group polarization

Risky

Neutral

Cautious

Group Polarization

Group Polarization- tendency to shift toward more extreme positions after group discussion

groupthink
Groupthink
  • Groupthink- syndrome of bad decision-making

12.17