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Mobile Source Work Group Potential Emission Reduction Strategies “Driving Toward Economic & Environmental Sustainability for Northeast Ohio” March 1, 2006 Scope of Work

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mobile source work group

Mobile Source Work Group

Potential Emission Reduction Strategies

“Driving Toward Economic & Environmental Sustainability for Northeast Ohio”

March 1, 2006

scope of work
Scope of Work
  • Explore potential emission reduction strategies for cars, trucks, buses, motorcycles and other gasoline-powered and diesel-powered on-road motor vehicles.
  • Non-road motor vehicles (boats, construction equipment, etc.) were studied by the Area Source Work Group
detail of diesel
Detail of Diesel
  • Diesel engines emit both NOx and PM2.5
  • They contribute to both ozone and PM2.5 formation
  • Consequently, many diesel strategies will be evaluated in more detail throughout the development of the PM2.5 SIP
mobile emissions inventory
Ohio EPA

114.07 tpd VOCs

144.36 tpd NOx

NOACA, et al

107 tpd VOCs

134 tpd NOx

Mobile Emissions Inventory

7.8 psi

5.25 tons per day VOCs

0.32 tons per day NOx

1 cent at refinery

7.0 psi

8.20 tons per day VOCs

0.48 tons per day NOx  

0.6 - 3 cents at refinery

Federal RFG

11.22 tons per day VOCs

0.13 tons per day NOx

1.7 – 6.2 cents at refinery

inspection maintenance programs
Inspection Maintenance Programs
  • A USEPA Requirement until attainment & redesignation
  • The Work Group quantified a variety of enhancements to the I/M (E-Check) Program:
    • Extended through 2009
    • Apply “most stringent” restrictions
    • Adopt final ASM 2525 Final Standards
    • Raising/eliminating the Waiver Rate
    • Include Ashtabula County in the Program
trip reduction programs
Trip Reduction Programs
  • These programs involved choices for employers to decrease travel by SOV
  • Include a variety of opportunities:
    • Compressed work weeks
    • Transit Subsidies
    • Walking/Bicycling showers and changing facilities
    • Parking Cash outs
  • The Work Group quantified
    • Trip Reduction Program for government employees only
    • Trip Reduction Programs for all residents
    • Carpooling & Rideshare Programs
bus improvement retirement programs
Bus Improvement / Retirement Programs
  • Allow older, high polluting buses to be retired/replaced with newer, cleaner buses
  • The Work Group quantified emission reductions associated with:
    • City of Cleveland School bus retirements – 270
    • GCRTA planned replacements – 15 buses
    • Laketran planned replacements – 70 buses
    • Metro RTA planned replacements – 8 buses
intelligent transportation systems
Intelligent Transportation Systems
  • ODOT has begun to implement two ITS systems that will watch for traffic congestion – then use electronic signage and radio to alert drivers
  • ODOT has quantified emission reductions in 2009 for:
    • Cleveland’s Freeway Management System
    • Akron-Canton Freeway Management System
speed limits
Speed Limits
  • Enforce existing speed limits
  • Emissions vary significantly as a function of vehicle type and vehicle speed
    • Cars run efficiently at higher speeds
    • Diesel vehicles put out greater quantities of NOx – forcing a load to move faster
      • Break point is 40 mph
  • Reduced speed limits 65-55 mph =
      • 1.0 tpd increases in VOCs
      • 2.0 tpd decrease in NOx
truck stop electrification
Truck Stop Electrification
  • Truck stops are a source of NOx, PM and CO
  • There are 3 truck stops in Northeast Ohio
    • United Truck Stop – Cleveland
    • Pilot Travel Center – Seville
    • TA-Lodi – Seville
  • There are significant infrastructure costs
  • This technology will result in a fuel savings for truckers
traffic signal synchronization rail road grade separations
Traffic Signal Synchronization / Rail Road Grade Separations
  • These projects reduce air pollution by reducing the amount of time that vehicles have to wait and by eliminating congestion
  • The Work Group quantified emission reductions associated with:
    • Signal projects included in NOACA’s & AMATS’ TIPs
    • RR projects included in NOACA’s & AMATS’ TIPs
transit centers park ride lots
Transit Centers/Park & Ride Lots
  • Transit centers, Park & Ride lot enhancements and improvements to transit waiting environments = encourage transit ridership = emission reductions
  • The Work Group quantified projects included in the NOACA TIP – there were no projects included in the AMATS TIP
anti idling
  • The reduction of both car and truck idling will result in reductions of VOCs, NOx and PM2.5
  • Anti-idling fleet policies should result in fuel savings and air pollution reductions
  • The Work Group is working to quantify emissions/fuel saved for cars, trucks and buses.
cash for clunkers program
Cash For Clunkers Program
  • NOACA recommended this Program during the prior SIP development process
    • Oldest/most polluting vehicles would be bought for $700
  • Results in a small impact due to improved fleet technology
alternative fuels
Alternative Fuels
  • Ethanol
    • E10 – fuel additive has been shown to increase VOCs (SEMCOG Fuel Study)
    • E85 has shown reductions in VOCs, NOx and PM (USEPA)
    • Can be locally produced – fermenting & distilling simple sugars
  • Biodiesel
    • B20 – blend has shown a reduction in CO, VOCs and PM, but a slight increase in NOx
    • B100 – has shown a significant reduction in CO, VOCs and PM, but an increase in NOx
    • Studies currently conflict as to whether biodiesel offers an ozone benefit.
alternative fuels continued
Alternative Fuels (continued)
  • Emulsified Diesel (PuriNox or Aquazole)
    • Emulsified blend of water (20%), diesel and additives
    • Does not work in post-2002 Cummins engines
    • Over the road use is limited to Caterpillar and Mack engines
  • Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
    • Methane stored in a cylinder at 3,000-3,600 psi
    • On and off road use
    • Has been shown to provide significant reductions in CO, VOCs, NOx and PM
    • Refueling stations are limited, older technology had some “bugs”
alternatively powered vehicles
Alternatively Powered Vehicles
  • Include electric, electric/hybrid, and plug-in electric hybrid vehicles
    • Electrification of ground support equipment (forklifts, tow motors, etc.) vehicles at the airport = reductions in air pollution
      • Quantified by the Area Source Work Group
    • City of Cleveland purchased 8 Ford Escape hybrids
    • GCRTA is purchasing 21 hybrid diesel-electric buses
    • Various communities in Northeast Ohio are supplementing fleets with alternatively powered/fueled vehicles.
oad and fp3 programs
OAD and FP3 Programs
  • Public education is a key component in affecting transportation choice changes
  • Voluntary actions can only receive 3% SIP credit
  • The Work Group provided an impact estimate that these programs may have on transportation choices
transit incentives
Transit Incentives
  • Some areas of the US have increased mass transit ridership on high air pollution day by offering free travel
  • The Work Group attempted to quantify the emission reduction benefits
  • Free ridership has extensive costs
roadside diesel testing
Roadside Diesel Testing
  • 22 states test exhaust from diesel trucks for opacity = good estimate of PM pollution
  • This type of testing does not have an ozone benefit, but will be explored in more detail throughout the PM2.5 SIP development process.
qualitative strategies weight of evidence
Qualitative Strategies = Weight of Evidence
  • Pedestrian/Bicycling Capacity
  • 1-800-Smoking Vehicles
  • Statewide Testing of Gasoline at the Pumps
  • Car Sharing
  • NOACA/AMAT Fleet Surveys
  • Fleet capital improvement budgets – purchases of newer, cleaner technology
  • Roadside diesel testing
  • Speeding tickets
  • CMAQ and other transportation funds
  • Grants
  • Senator Voinovich’s Diesel Emissions Reduction Act of 2005