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    1. Defining Moments in the Christian History Brandon Bayne The Schism of 1054

    2. Turning Point: The Schism of 1054

    3. Turning Point Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople vs. Pope Leo IX and Cardinal Humbert

    4. Review: Councils Nicaea (323): Trinity and Christ Constantinople (381): Expands on the Son Ephesus (431): Alexandrian Christology Chalcedon (451): Refutes Heresy, Affirms Nicaea

    5. Review: Nicene Creed We believe in one God, the Father all-governing Creator of heaven and earth, of all things visible and Invisible; And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, begotten from the Father before all time, Light of light, true God of true God, begotten not created, of the same essence as the Father, through whom all things came into being, Who for us and because of our salvation came down from heaven,

    6. Review: Nicene Creed Was incarnated by the Holy Spirit in the Virgin Mary and became human, Was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, Suffered and was buried, And rose the third day according to the Scriptures, Ascended into heaven and sits on the right hand of the Father, And will come again with glory to judge the living and the dead. (From Chalcedon, 451)

    7. Review: Christology Who was Jesus? God, Man, or both? If both, then how? If God, how does he relate to the Godhead?

    8. Review: Christologies Arians (Jesus = Creature) Ebionites (Jesus = man, not fully divine) Docetist (Jesus only seemed human) Gnostic (Jesus = Spirit, not man) Eutyches (Incarnate Jesus had only one nature) Nestorians (Christ has two distinct natures) Orthodox/Chalcedon: Fully divine, became a man, begotten (not made), with Two Natures in perfect union at all times.

    9. Review: Trinity Orthodoxy (Nicea): One God who exists in 3 persons: -coequal -coeternal -same substance (homoousion) Father begets Son and Holy Spirit Mary bears Jesus by the Holy Spirit

    10. Review: Trinity What does begotten mean? Arians: Creative act of Creator to Creature Athanasius: Flowing forth from the Being of God

    11. Review: Trinity Question in the Western missionary encounters: If Father begets Son and the Holy Spirit is agent of his birth, then is Christ equal? Isnt he a creature of the other two (i.e. Arian position)? Answer: Filioque added to Nicene Creed Father and the Son beget the Holy Spirit.

    13. The Growing Divide East and west were becoming strangers to one another From the start Greeks and Latins had each approached the Christian Mystery in their own way. The Latin approach was more practical, the Greek more speculative; Latin thought was influenced by juridical ideas, by the concepts of Roman law, while the Greeks understood theology in the context of worship and in the light of the Holy Liturgy. When thinking about the Trinity, Latins started with the unity of the Godhead, Greeks with the threeness of the persons; when reflecting on the Crucifixion, Latins thought primarily of Christ the victim, Greeks of Christ the Victor; Latins talked more of redemption, Greeks of deification; and so on (Timothy Ware, The Orthodox Church, 56). (Evangelical turned Orthodox Bishop)

    14. The Growing Divide Clement I (c. 96 From Rome to Ephesus) Roman Christianity No Demons No gifts of Spirit No focus on Second Coming At home in the world

    15. Tertullian of Carthage vs. Clement of Alexandria

    16. Diverging Paradigms West Latin Practical Precision Law Hierarchy Define Orthodoxy East Greek Mystical Mystery Philosophy Council Circumscribe Orthodoxy

    17. Diverging Paradigms: Greek and Latin Practical vs. Mystical Precision vs. Ambiguity Define Orthodoxy vs. Circumscribe Orthodoxy

    18. Greek Orthodoxy 3 Cappadocian Fathers (Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nyssa Gregory of Nazianzus Stress Trinity Preserve Myster Rely on Spirit

    19. 2 Capitols, 2 Histories 4th Cent.: Creation of new capital: Constantinople 5th/7th Cent.: Barbarian Invasions 7th Cent.: Islam controls Mediterranean and most of North Africa (division)

    20. The Growing Divide

    21. Church and State In the East the Emperor was nearly Pope, preaching and organizing councils In the West the Pope was nearly emperor, ruling the church, crowning kings, and providing for social and political organization

    22. The Fall of Rome: Internal Pressures

    23. The Fall of Rome: Internal Pressures

    24. Contributing Reasons for the Fall Difficulty and Decay of large borders Tax problems Too much diversity Persia Social Net (huge poverty and huge dole) Poor leadership and internal strife Christianity (Gibbon vs. Augustine)

    25. The Fall of Rome: External Pressures

    26. The Fall of Rome: External Pressures Burgundians, Visigoths, Goths, Vandals, Franks, Lombards, Suevi, Norse, and Huns press upon the Empire from the North and East Goths defeat/kill Valens at Battle of Adrianople 378AD Goths sack Rome in 410 Huns and Vandals invade West in 450s Last Emperor (Romulus Augustus) deposed in 476 Lombards control Rome after 550 AD

    27. Barbarian Kingdoms: Bishops Guard Civilization

    28. Barbarian Kingdoms: Bishops

    29. Barbarian Conversions Clovis (and therefore all of the Franks) converts to Christianity at Christmas 496 Recarred I (and therefore all of the Visigoths) converts to Catholicism from Arianism in 589

    31. Barbarian Kingdoms Pope Leo III crowns Charlegmagne, the Frankish King, the Holy Roman Emperor in 800 AD, incites anger in the East

    32. The Splintering Debates Easter (2nd Century): dating of the celebration (Pope Victor 189 198)

    33. The Splintering Debates

    34. The Splintering Debates Eventually, the Church at the 2nd Council of Nicaea (787) permitted the veneration, rather than the worship of images. Shows the reality of the incarnation.

    35. The Splintering Debates

    36. The Splintering Debates The Photian Schism (858-867).

    37. The Splintering Debates Celibacy: The Western church begins to enforce clerical celibacy in the 10th century, while Eastern clergy are still allowed to marry Ritual: Leaven vs. Unleavened bread, form of the liturgy, etc.

    38. The Rise of the Papacy

    39. The Rise of the Papacy

    40. The Rise of the Papacy A. Primus entre Pares First Among Equals B. Vicar of Peter --? Vicar of Christ (Pius XII) C. Pluralism -?Absolutism/Plenitudo Potestatis D. Rome begins to rule unilaterally on doctrine and practice in West E. Gregorian Reforms: Centralization and Bureaucracy

    41. The Rise of the Papacy

    42. The Advance of Islam The Prophet: Mohammed and his Encounter with Monotheism Probably encountered Nestorians in Arabia (heretics always spread)

    43. The Advance of Islam: The Spread Damascus (635) Jerusalem (638) Alexandria (643) North Africa (711) Iberia (711) Asia Minor/Turkey (718)

    44. The Advance of Islam

    45. Advance of Islam: The Response Charles Martel defeats Moors at the Battle of Tours (732) Reconquista of Spain (711 1492)

    46. Advance of Islam: Response

    47. Advance of Islam: Response

    48. The Dawn of the Crusades

    49. Dawn of the Crusades 8 major and many minor military expeditions between the late 11th and late 13th Centuries, but actually didnt completely end until the 16th Century. Response to the Rise of Islam, especially the Seljik Turks

    50. Dawn of the Crusades Background and Rationale: Penitential Pilgrimage

    51. Dawn of the Crusades

    52. Attitudes Toward War No War (Justin Martyr, Origen, Sermon on the Mt.) Just War (Augustine, Luther, Mk. 12:17) Holy War (OT, Jn. 2:15, Mt. 10:34, Lk. 22)

    53. Dawn of the Crusades Bernard of Clairvaux: Apostle of Love or Hate? Famous Cistercian Ascetic Calls for fighting for the land of King Jesus and defense of the cross against heretics of Islam

    54. Dawn of the Crusades

    55. The Fourth Crusade Cause: Crusaders called to Defend Constantinople Location: Constantinople Backers: Venetian Merchants Dates: 1214-1261 Outcome: Crusaders rule a Latin Constantinople -sack Hagia Sophia -horrible massacres -finally

    56. The Fourth Crusade

    57. The Fourth Crusade

    58. The Fourth Crusade There was never a greater crime against humanity thane the Fourth Crusade. Not only did it cause the destruction or dispersal of all the treasures of the past that Byzantium had devotedly stored, and the mortal wounding of civilization that was still active and great; but it was also an act of gigantic political folly. It brought no help to Christians in Palestine. -Steven Runciman

    59. The Legacy of Schism The Development of Eastern Orthodoxy: (Russia, Eastern Europe, Northern Africa, and Americas) The Witness of Disunity Attempts at Reconciliation

    60. Legacy of Schism Joint Statement on Orthodox-Catholic Relations Communications after Vatican II in 1960s Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras I make joint declaration on December 7, 1965 Regret offensive words, gestures Remove from memory excommunication Deplore later vexing events and rupture of communion