summary of chapter 4 of case study research design and methods by robert k yin l.
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Summary of chapter 4 of 'Case Study Research, Design and Methods' by Robert K. Yin. Conducting Case Studies: Collecting the evidence. Conducting Case Studies: Collecting the evidence Six Sources of Evidence. Content. Six sources of evidence Data collection methods

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Presentation Transcript
content
Content
  • Six sources of evidence
    • Data collection methods
  • Three principles for collecting data
collecting data
Collecting data
  • Six primary sources of evidence:
    • Documents
    • Archival records
    • Interviews
    • Direct observations
    • Participant-observation
    • Physical artifacts
  • Additional sources exists
collecting data from documents
Collecting data from documents
  • What to think of
    • Plan the collection of data from documents
      • Different types include letters, memos, email
      • Agendas, minutes of meetings
      • Reports
      • Other evaluations or studies
    • Make sure you have access to documents
    • Document retrieval and investigation takes time
  • Why use documents
    • Correctness, corroborate, inference
  • Beware of
    • Documents are seldom literal records of what happened
    • Documents are written for a specific audience
collecting data from archival records
Collecting data from archival records
  • What to think of
    • Plan the collection of data from archival records
      • Very often data bases
      • Personal records
      • Service records, customer complaint database
      • Survey data
    • Make sure you have access to databases etc.
    • Retrieval and investigation takes time
  • Why use archival records
    • Can contain quantitative data for the case
  • Beware of
    • Records are written for a specific purpose and audience
collecting data through interviews
Collecting data through interviews
  • What to think of
    • Two tasks
      • Follow the “line of inquiry” and make sure to capture the response to the questions
      • Ask the actual questions
    • Maintain a friendly and non-threatening climate
      • Ask “how” questions rather than “why”
    • Different types of interviews
      • Open-ended
      • Focused interview
      • Structured questions (compare with surveys)
  • Why use interviews
    • Captures data not recorded
    • Possibility to capture different views
  • Beware of
    • Bias, poor recall, poor or inaccurate articulation
    • Recording device or not?
collecting data through direct observations
Collecting data through direct observations
  • What to observe
    • Meetings
    • Factory work
    • Classrooms
    • Conditions of buildings
    • Work space
  • What to think of
    • Decide on level of formality
      • Observational protocols
      • Direct observations taking notes
      • Less formal observations
  • Why use direct observations
    • Useful in providing additional information and understanding of the case
collecting data through direct observations9
Collecting data through direct observations
  • Beware of
    • Capturing events with cameras etc may require written permission
    • Single observers may miss important events
    • Always affect observed entities
collecting data through participant observations
Collecting data through participant-observations
  • What to think of
    • Decide on what roles to assume (special mode of direct observations)
  • Why use participant-observation
    • Gives access to events and data otherwise inaccessible
    • Reality is perceived from within
    • Gives the observer ability to manipulate minor events
  • Beware of
    • Reduces the possibilities to work as an outside observer
    • The observer becomes a supporter
    • The role assumed requires too much and prevents the observation
    • Timing
collecting data from physical artifacts
Collecting data from physical artifacts
  • Examples
    • Technological devices
    • Tools or instruments
    • A work of art
  • What to think of
    • Collected or observed as part of an (direct/participant/historical) observation
    • Plan the collection of data from physical artifacts
      • What is really usefull?
  • Why use physical artifacts
    • May include data not found in other ways
  • Beware of
    • Amount of data
    • Need other information to put the artifact in a context
principle 1 use multiple sources of evidence
Principle 1: Use Multiple Sources of Evidence

Why use multiple sources of evidence?

  • Single source only provides data on one specifc source
    • Generally applicable results are hard to derive
    • Trustworthiness
    • Accuracy
    • NOT recommended for case studies
  • Weaknesses of data sources in case studies
    • Bias
    • Correctness
  • Use multiple sources!!!
      • Other research methods do usually not need this in the same extent,e.g., performing an experiment in a lab
principle 1 use multiple sources of evidence cont d
Principle 1: Use Multiple Sources of Evidence cont’d
  • Triangulation: Rationale for using multiple sources of evidence
    • Triangulate data from multiple sources
    • Develop converging lines of inquiry
    • Findings/conclusions are likely to be more convincing and accurate
    • Possible to address broader array of issues
  • With data triangulation
    • Addresses construct validity
      • How can we be certain that what we measure relect the changes we study?
    • Case studies using multiple sources often areconsidered to have higher overall quality
principle 1 use multiple sources of evidence cont d 2
Principle 1: Use Multiple Sources of Evidence cont’d 2

Convergence of Evidence

Non-Convergence of Evidence

  • Prerequisities for using multiple sources
    • More expensive
    • More time-consuming
    • Each investigator requires skills in using multiple sources(can be troublesome to aquire these skills)

ArchivalRecords

Observations

conclusions

site visits

conclusions

survey

FACT

document analysis

conclusions

Documents

Interviews and surveys

principle 2 create a case study database
Principle 2: Create a Case Study Database

Why create case study database?

  • Weakness in many case studies:
    • No separation between collected evidence and final report
    • Readers of the report have no way of finding out basis for conclusions
    • Not using a database is a major drawback...
  • Using a database
    • Increases reliability of the entire case study
principle 2 create a case study database cont d
Principle 2: Create a Case Study Database cont’d
  • Contents of database
    • Case study notes
      • Notes from e.g. interviews, observations, document analysis
      • Handwritten, typed, computer files, audiotapes etc.
      • Can use any classification system
    • Case study documents
      • Can require large physical space (for printed material)
      • Beneficial to have an annotated bibliography
    • Tabular materials
      • Surveys and other quantative data
    • Narratives
      • E.g. open-ended answers to questions in the case study protocol

Contents of database need not be ”presentable”...

Other people should be able to access and search the database

principle 3 maintain a chain of evidence
Principle 3: Maintain a Chain of Evidence

Why maintain chain of evidence?

  • To increase reliability of the information in the case study
  • To allow an external observer to follow the derivation of any evidence
  • To trace the steps in either direction
  • Prove that
    • Case study report contains the same evidence as was collected
    • No evidence have been lost via carelessness or bias
  • Case study report should hold in ”court”!!
principle 3 maintain a chain of evidence cont d

Case Study Report

Case Study Database

Citations to Specific Evidentiary Sourcesin the Case Study Database

Case Study Protocol

Case Study Questions

Principle 3: Maintain a Chain of Evidence cont’d
  • Case study report should citate case study database
  • Database should reveal how and when evidence was collected and surrounding circumstances
  • Circumstances should be consistent with specific procedures and questions in case study protocol
  • Case study protocol should be linked to initial case study questions