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Evidence Based Policy Making: Water resources case studies. D. Rios Insua, RAC J. Cano, A. Udías, URJC Kiombo Jean Marie, U. Agostinho Neto Hocine Fellag, U. Tizi Ouzou Paris, December’10. Agenda. Background Case 1: Kwanza river management Case 2: Fair water distribution in Kabylia

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evidence based policy making water resources case studies

Evidence Based Policy Making:Water resources case studies

D. Rios Insua, RAC

J. Cano, A. Udías, URJC

Kiombo Jean Marie, U. Agostinho Neto

Hocine Fellag, U. Tizi Ouzou

Paris, December’10

  • Background
  • Case 1: Kwanza river management
  • Case 2: Fair water distribution in Kabylia
  • Common lessons

Two case studies in water resources management

Africa (Angola, Algeria)

Spanish Cooperation Agency (us, local uni, one or more local agents)


Policy making (public policy decision making)

Evidence based??

Policy analytics

background ebdm
Background: EBDM

A. Smith. Towards an Evidence-Based Society

Most of us with rationalist pretensions presumably aspire to live in a society in which decisions about matters of substance with significant potential social or personal implications are taken on the best available evidence, rather than on the basis of irrelevant evidence or no evidence at all. Of course, the nature of what constitutes evidence in any particular instance could be a matter of debate.

Evidence-based medicine (JAMA)

de-emphasizes intuition, unsystematic clinical experience and pathophysiologic rationale as sufficient grounds for clinical decision making and stresses the examination of evidence from clinical research. Evidence- based medicine requires new skills of the physician, including efficient literature searching and the application of formal rules of evidence evaluating the clinical literature

background ebdm1
Background: EBDM

ODI. Evidence-Based Policy Making. What relevance for developing countries?

Replacing ideologically driven politics with rational decision making

Better utilization of evidence in policy and practice

Helps people make well informed decisions about policies, programmes and projects by putting the best available evidence form research at the heart of policy devlopment and implementation

Different types of evidence

Hierarchy of evidence

What evidence is useful to policymakers

background ebdm2
Background: EBDM

ODI. Evidence-Based Policy Making. What relevance for developing countries?

More troubled political context…


Political volatility

Role of civil society

Centralised policy processes, Less open

Lack of performance indicators

Lack of data (and if existing difficult to get)

background info the kwanza river
Background info. The Kwanza river
  • Divided in three parts: Upper Kwanza, Middle Kwanza, Lower Kwanza
  • Length: 960 Km
  • Basin area: 152,570 Km2
  • Flow average: 825 m3/s
background info angola
Background info. Angola
  • Estimated population: 17600000 inhabitants
  • Human Development Index (2007):0.564, place 143 of 182
  • Gross Domestic Product per capita (2008): US$ 4961
  • Population without access to improved water source (2006): 49%
  • Population without access to energy (2005): 13,5 million of persons
  • Electrification rate: 15% between 2000 and 2005
  • Proportion of renewable energy supply: approximately 1% in 1990 and 1.5% in 2005
  • Number of hydrographic basins: 47, the most important is the Kwanza river.
background info
Background info.



problem formulation decision variables
Problem formulation. Decision variables
  • Monthly water through Capanda turbines
  • Monthly water through Capanda spillgates
  • Similarly for Cambambe
  • Monthly water for irrigation at Southern Luanda agricultural projects
  • Monthly water for consumption at Luanda
problem formulation uncertainties
Problem formulation. Uncertainties
  • Water inflow to Capanda
  • Evaporated water in Capanda
  • Similarly in Cambambe
  • Water demand for irrigation in Luanda
  • Water demand for human consumption in Luanda
problem formulation constraints 1
Problem formulation. Constraints 1
  • Energy production constraints
  • Release constraints

Water through turbines smaller than the maximum

It. Through spillgates

Releases should respect navigability minima…

Maximum capacity for water treatment

  • Storage constraints

Storage at reservoir smaller than maximum

Continuity constraints

problem formulation objectives
Problem formulation. Objectives
  • Maximize energy production
  • Minimize water releases through both spillgates
  • Minimize water deficit for irrigation
  • Minimize water deficit for human consumption

Changed several times

preference modelling
Preference modelling.
  • Energy production

g1(et) = 1.005 – 0.991 * exp(-0.012 * et)

  • gt(dec, inc) = 0,30g1(et)+0,15g2(U2Pt)+0,15 g3(U2Bt)+0,17 g4(kt)+0,23g5(ht)
uncertainty modelling
Uncertainty modelling

Unregulated inflows. DLMs

Regulated inflows. Regression models, Water travelling time model.

Data available for different years… simulate to generate data for same years

Evaporation data not available: A model (Visentini)

problem formulation
Problem formulation

The problem consists of maximising the

following expected utility:

Ψ(U) = ∫…∫∑[(0,30(1.027 – 1.012 * exp(-0.0056 * et)) + 0.15(-0.045 + 1.098 * exp(-0.475 * U2Pt))+0.15(-0.045 + 1.098 * exp(-0.475 *U2Bt))+0.17(0.020 + 0.984*exp(-0.083*kt))+0.23(-0.007 +1.058 * exp(-1.232 * ht))]h(i,u)dîB dîp dûurb dûirr

Subject to constraints

problem solution mc approximation of objective function
Problem solution. MC Approximation of objective function
  • 1/N ∑[(gt(U1Bt,U2Bt,U1Pt,U2Pt,Ujirrt,Ujurbt, i,d)+


Similarly for gradient

problem solution strategy adopted
Problem solution. Strategy adopted

At a given time:

Forecast for next twelve months. (Inflows, Demands, ‘Evaporations’)

Optimise/plan for next twelve months. (Solve MEU)

Implement optimal alternative obtained this month.

Collect data for forecasting model.

Move to next time.


  • A different number of months
  • Add a penalty term to mitigate miopicity
problem solution an example of a run
Problem solution. An example of a run

18 months planning. At each stage, 12 months. MC size 500.

the kwanza problem
The Kwanza problem

Finetuning this


Capacity expansion- National energy plan

(with A. Simbo)

background info2
Background info
  • Total area: 2957 km2;
  • 67 municipalities (1380 villages);
  • Total population: 1,100,000;
  • Population over 900 m: 110,000 (90 villages);
  • Annual rainfall: 900 mm;
  • Groundwater: 72%;
  • In 2009: 6,500,559 m3, up to 80% losses;
  • 9 wells (Bouaid), pumping capacity: 1,040 m3 h−1;
  • 5 wells (Takhoukht) pumping capacity: 140 m3 h−1;
  • Taksebt reservoir, pumping capacity: 140 m3 h−1;
  • 38 reservoirs (storage capacity: 28,000 m3);
  • 6 intermediate pumping stations 5,400 m3 h−1;
description of the problem
Description of the problem
  • Distribute water in a equitable & cost-efficient way.
  • Difficulties to satisfy water demand adequately. Frequent water shortages create political unrest
  • (Optimization of the pump operational schedules & strategic planning)
  • Complex rules in energy fares (daytime & contractual issues).
  • Pumping water uphill creates important engineering problems & high costs due to electricity consumption
solutions to the problem
Solutions to the problem
  • Egalitarian solution (suggested by the water company), inflict same per capita water deficit Lk to all users & minimize Lk;
  • Smorodinsky-Kalai, min-max Lk;
  • Utilitarian solution, maximize sum of attained utilities (minimizing sum of Lk minimize average per capita water deficit);
  • Variance solution (not an arbitration solution), minimize standard deviation of Lk;
  • Minimize inter and intravariability.
formulation of the problem
Formulation of the problem
  • OBJ1: Minimize Cost (total electricity pumping consumption);
  • OBJ2: Achieve equitable distribution.
    • Pumping capacity;
    • Storage capacity;
    • Water flow capacity;
case study
Case study
  • Two scenarios of distribution network losses (50% and 80% over-demand).
  • Four infrastructure scenarios.
case study1
Case study
  • Previously ‘fixed’ demand
  • Demand data unavailable until this project
  • DLM model per village. Hierarchical approach. Censored data
  • Stochastic programming
common lessons1
Common lessons
  • Multiple objectives
  • Unclear objectives which evolved
  • Uncertainty
    • Lack of data (simulate, extrapolate, censored)
  • Planning over time
  • Computational compromises
  • No participation
  • First quantitative approaches for our clients
  • Encouraging results
  • Unveil new realities
    • Angola (Capacity expansion, Transmission reliability)
    • Algeria (Thefts, Modify network, Reliability)
  • Policy making
  • Evidence based?
    • Possibly (best available methods, best data available, careful work with experts)
    • DSS
  • Policy analytics