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Body Management Skills. Definition Required to control the body Agility Coordination Balance Flexibility How to control body while on apparatus Develop body management skills. Body Management Skills. Return activities Increase movement potential of apparatus

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body management skills
Body Management Skills
  • Definition
    • Required to control the body
    • Agility
    • Coordination
    • Balance
    • Flexibility
    • How to control body while on apparatus
    • Develop body management skills

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

body management skills2
Body Management Skills
  • Return activities
    • Increase movement potential of apparatus
    • Perform a movement task after apparatus
    • Reduces time children stand in line waiting for another turn
    • Increase activity time
    • Return activities require little supervision
    • Jumping
    • Hopping
    • Skipping
    • Animal walks

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

body management skills3
Body Management Skills
  • Apparatus safety guidelines
    • Use tumbling mats
    • Apparatus carried, not dragged
    • Students assist with moving apparatus
    • Activity on apparatus occurs only when directed by teacher
    • Instruction should precede apparatus activity

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

body management skills4
Body Management Skills
  • Examples
    • Climbing ropes
    • Balance beams
    • Benches
    • Jumping boxes
    • Horizontal ladders
    • Low horizontal bar
    • Parachutes
    • Individual mats
    • Magic ropes
    • Tug-of-war ropes
    • Scooters

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

rhythmic movement skills
Rhythmic Movement Skills
  • Definition
    • Basis of music and dance
    • Expressive movement
    • All body movements tend to be rhythmic
    • Particularly appropriate for young children
    • Early experiences center on functional and creative movement forms
    • Locomotor skills are inherently rhythmic

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

rhythmic movement skills6
Rhythmic Movement Skills
  • Types of rhythmic activity
    • Fundamental rhythms
    • Creative rhythms
    • Singing movement songs
    • Folk dances
    • Mixers
    • Aerobic dancing
    • Square dancing
    • Rope jumping to music
    • Musical games
    • Rhythmic gymnastics

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

rhythmic movement skills7
Rhythmic Movement Skills
  • Rhythmic accompaniment
    • Tempo
      • Speed of the music
      • Can be constant or show gradual increase or decrease
    • Beat
      • Underlying rhythm of the music
      • Pulse of the music
      • Even or uneven

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

rhythmic movement skills8
Rhythmic Movement Skills
  • Rhythmic accompaniment
    • Meter
      • Manner in which beats are put together to form a measure of music
      • Common meters
        • 2/4
        • 3/4
        • 4/4
    • Accent
      • Notes that receive more force than others
      • Usually applied to the first beat

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

rhythmic movement skills9
Rhythmic Movement Skills
  • Rhythmic accompaniment
    • Intensity
      • Loud
      • Soft
      • Light
      • Heavy
    • Mood
      • Intensity, human feelings
      • Happiness
      • Sadness
      • Fear

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

rhythmic movement skills10
Rhythmic Movement Skills
  • Rhythmic accompaniment
    • Phrase
      • Natural grouping of measures
      • Usually eight underlying beats
    • Patterns
      • Phrases are put together into patterns
      • Children learn to recognize when the pattern repeats or changes

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

rhythmic movement skills11
Rhythmic Movement Skills
  • Teaching rhythms
    • Avoid formations and partners
    • Use scatter formation
    • Forget left-right orientation
    • Forget clockwise-counterclockwise orientation
    • Perform a dance once (per session)
    • Slow down the music

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

rhythmic movement skills12
Rhythmic Movement Skills
  • Teaching rhythms
    • Teach like sports
    • Emphasize practice not perfection
    • Combine instructions with movement
    • Tell them all; they forget all
    • Choose dances that emphasize strong movements
    • Avoid the phrase “You’re out of step!”

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

gymnastic skills
Gymnastic Skills
  • Definition
    • Develop body management skills
    • No need for apparatus or equipment
    • Flexibility
    • Agility
    • Balance
    • Strength
    • Body control
    • Partner and group activities offer social interaction and cooperation
    • Positive learning dependent on progression

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

gymnastic skills14
Gymnastic Skills
  • Progression and placement
    • Use progression to avoid injury and increase skill learning
    • Progression is divided into developmental levels
    • Emphasis on enjoyment
    • Emphasis on exposure and overcoming fear
    • Perfect technique is less important than developing positive approach behaviors

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

gymnastic skills15
Gymnastic Skills
  • Examples
    • Developmental Level I
      • Rolling log
      • Forward roll
    • Developmental Level II
      • Backward roll
      • Frog handstand
      • Cartwheel
    • Developmental Level III
      • Headstand variations
      • Cartwheel and round-off

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

gymnastic skills16
Gymnastic Skills
  • Instructional methodology
    • Normal introductory and fitness activity provide sufficient warm-up
    • Extra flexibility in wrists, ankles, neck
    • Effective class management
      • All children should be active
      • Perform across mats sideways
      • Consider station teaching

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

gymnastic skills17
Gymnastic Skills
  • Formations for teaching
    • Squad
      • Mats placed in a line
      • Squads lined up behind mats
    • Semicircular
      • Directs attention toward the teacher
    • U-shape
      • Mats placed in large U-shape
      • Offers excellent view for teacher
    • Demonstration Mat
      • Mat in central position

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

gymnastic skills18
Gymnastic Skills
  • Safety considerations
    • Safety is foremost consideration
    • Plan to avoid harmful situations
    • Spotting
      • Safety and injury prevention
      • Guide performer through stunt
      • Help support body weight
      • Probably best to avoid activities that require spotting
      • Do not force students to participate in inverted balance and tumbling activities

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

gymnastic skills19
Gymnastic Skills
  • Instructional Procedures
    • Use mats
    • Partner work
    • Respect individual differences
    • Relate new activities to previous activities
    • Use a standard counting system
    • When appropriate, have children work in pairs
    • Shifting of mats is not necessary during instruction

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

relay skills
Relay Skills
  • Definition
    • Relays teach
      • Cooperation
      • Competition
      • Sportsmanship
    • Relays not used for teaching physical skills
    • Most students are not active
    • Relays should require low skill level
      • Test strength
      • Test quickness
      • Test balance

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

relay skills21
Relay Skills
  • Relay procedures
    • Restrict teams to 4 or 5 students
    • Change teams regularly
    • Place less skilled students in the middle of the team
    • Briefly discuss rule infractions
    • Designate a deceleration zone
    • De-emphasize winning
    • Conduct a trial run
    • Clarify traffic rules

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

relay skills22
Relay Skills
  • Relay examples
    • Beanbag relays
    • Lane relays
    • Lane relays with equipment
    • Revolving team ball relays
    • Circle pass relays
    • Miscellaneous relays
    • Modified relays

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

personal challenge skills
Personal Challenge Skills
  • Definition
    • Offer opportunity to match strength and wits with others
    • Children who are quick and strong perform well
    • Give students an opportunity to test themselves
    • De-emphasize winning
    • Developmental II and III
    • Rekindle motivation and change pace

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

personal challenge skills24
Personal Challenge Skills
  • Personal challenge procedures
    • Emphasize safety
    • Make instructions explicit
    • Perform some activities on mats
    • Determine who starts the contest
    • Contests should be done with the right side, left side and both sides
    • Positions can be varied
    • Develop a rotation system

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

personal challenge skills25
Personal Challenge Skills
  • Personal challenge examples
    • Hand wrestle
    • Finger fencing
    • Touch knees
    • Palm push
    • Elbow wrestle
    • Wand lift
    • Power pull
    • Rope tug-of-war

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

game skills
Game Skills
  • Definition
    • Contribute to growth and development
    • Children experience success and accomplishment
    • Laboratory where children apply physical skills in game setting
    • Develop large-muscle groups
    • Apply strategy and rules
    • Modify games to match your program

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

game skills27
Game Skills
  • Evaluating games
    • Examine worth of games
      • Physical skills required
      • Number of participants
      • Complexity of rules
      • Amount of strategy involved
    • Children must have learned requisite skills
    • Cooperation is necessary
    • Move from partner, to small group, to team games

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

game skills28
Game Skills
  • Creating or modifying games
    • Change distance to run
    • Change the means of locomotion
    • Play game with one or more partners
    • Change method of tagging
    • Vary goals or restricted areas
    • Vary the boundaries of the game
    • Change game formations
    • Change scoring requirements
    • Increase number of players
    • Change rules or penalties of the game

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

game skills29
Game Skills
  • Teaching games effectively
    • Put children in formation prior to presenting a new game
    • Use trial period (no scoring) during first stages of learning a new game
    • Don not use games that isolate one child
    • Develop a rotation plan
    • Assure all children have equal participation
    • Plan before attempting a new game
    • Avoid using out of bounds rule with low-organized and sport lead-up games

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

game skills30
Game Skills
  • Teaching games effectively
    • Change the makeup of the teams often and play relatively short games
    • Use pinnies to identify teams
    • Use games to teach social skills
    • Learning to perform skills correctly is more important than game outcome
    • Use the “rule of three” as a way of simplifying rules

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon