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“ARIZONA INDIANS AT 100 YEARS OF PROGRESS AND THE FUTURE”. Donald Fixico Black Canyon Conference Center March 5, 2007. Thanks to:. Sarah Weber Noel Stowe Gladys Ann Wells Arizona State Library, Archives & Public Records. Indian Country. Bureau of Indian Affairs.

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arizona indians at 100 years of progress and the future

“ARIZONA INDIANS AT 100 YEARS OF PROGRESS AND THE FUTURE”

Donald Fixico

Black Canyon Conference Center

March 5, 2007

thanks to
Thanks to:
  • Sarah Weber
  • Noel Stowe
  • Gladys Ann Wells
  • Arizona State Library, Archives & Public Records
bureau of indian affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
  • Interior Dept is responsible for administration of 55.7 million acres of land held in trust with American Indians, tribes, & Alaska Natives.
  • 562 federally recognized tribes with over 200 of these groups in Alaska.
  • Govt oversees tribal forest land, leased lands, agricultural programs, water & land rights, & the economic development of native groups.
  • Also, the federal govt provides educational services to 48,000 American Indian students.
population of arizona indians
Population of Arizona Indians
  • 22 tribes in Arizona with an est pop of 275,321 American Indians/ Alaska Natives of a total 5,829,839 residents in the state. This is 4.7% of the state pop, compared with a national avg of 0.8 percent.
  • Ariz tribes have 28% of the land.
tribes of arizona 22
Ak-Chin Indian CommunityDelia Carlyle, Chairwoman

Navajo NationJoe Shirley, Jr., President

Cocopah TribeSherry Cordova, Chairperson

Pascua Yaqui TribeHerminia Frias, Chairperson

Colorado River IndianTribesDaniel Eddy, Jr., Chairman

Salt River Pima- MaricopaIndian CommunityJoni Ramos, President

Fort McDowell YavapaiNationRaphael Bear, President

San Carlos Apache TribeKathy Kitcheyan, Chairperson

Fort Mojave Indian TribeNora McDowell, Chairperson

San Juan Southern PaiuteEvelyn James., President

Fort Yuma-Quechan TribeMikel Jackson, Sr., President

Tohono O'Odham NationVivian Juan-Saunders, Chairperson

Gila River Indian CommunityWilliam Rhodes, Governor

Tonto Apache TribeIvan Smith, Chairman

Havasupai TribeThomas Siyuja, Sr., Chairman

White Mountain Apache TribeRonnie Lupe, Chairman

The Hopi TribeIvan L. Sidney, Chairman

Yavapai-Apache NationJamie Fullmer, Chairman

Hualapai TribeCharles Vaughn, Chairperson

Yavapai-Prescott Indian TribeErnie Jones, Sr., President

Kaibab-Paiute TribeGary Tom, Chairman

Zuni TribeArlen P. Quetawki, Governor

last revised 1-06-06

Tribes of Arizona (22)
areas of progress
Areas of Progress
  • 1. Education
  • 2. Economics & Resources
  • 3. Health
  • 4. Culture & Language
  • 5. Government
court cases 61 laws since 1975
Court Cases & 61 Laws Since 1975
  • 1975
  • American Indian Self-Determination and Education Act
  • Council of Energy Resources Tribes (CERT) founded in Denver, Colorado
  • 1978
  • American Indian Religious Freedom Act
  • American Indian Child Welfare Act
  • Oliphant v. Suquamish Indian Tribe
  • Santa Clara v. Martinez
  • 1979
  • Seminoles open bingo in Florida
  • 1981
  • Seminole Tribe v. Butterworth Case
  • 1982
  • Indian Land Consolidation Act
  • Jicarilla Apache Case
  • 1983
  • Mashentucket Pequot opens Foxwoods
  • 1988
  • Passage of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act.
  • 1987
  • California v. Cabazon Band of Mission Indians
  • 1990—Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA).
  • 1992—Public Law 102-573 amends Indian Health Care Improvement Act.
  • 1996—Public Law 104-313 amends Indian Health Care Improvement Act.
  • 1998—Organization of the NAMMY (Native American Music) Awards.
res pop enrolled sq miles
Res Pop Enrolled Sq Miles
  • 2000 Census
  • Ak-Chin 742 652 34.1 sq miles
  • Cocopah 1,025 880 9.4 sq miles
  • Colorado River[AZ part 7,466 3,389 419.6 sq miles
  • Fort McDowell 824 907 38.6 sq miles
  • Fort Mohave[AZ part] 773 1,066 45.7 sq miles
  • Fort Yuma-Quechan[AZ part] 36 2,668 68.1 sq miles
  • Gila River 11,257 19,266 581.1 sq miles
  • Havasupai 503 667 293.8 sq miles
  • Hopi 6,946 10,590 2,438.6 sq miles
  • Hualapai 1,353 2,156 1,650.2 sq miles
  • Kaibab-Paiute 196 233 188.7 sq miles
  • Navajo 104,565 255,543 18,119.2 sq miles
  • Pascua Yaqui 3,315 12,766 1.4 sq miles
  • Salt River 6,405 6,284 87.2 sq miles
  • San Carlos 9,385 10,834 2,853.1 sq miles
  • San Juan Southern Paiute 209 254 n/a
  • Tohono O'odham 10,787 20,640 4,446.3 sq miles
  • Tonto Apache 132 111 13 sq miles
  • White Mountain Apache 12,429 12,634 2,600.7 sq miles
  • Yavapai-Apache 743 650 1.02 sq miles
  • Yavapai-Prescott 182 149 2.2 sq miles
  • Zuni [AZ part]
urban indian populations
Urban Indian Populations
  • Overall 2/3 of the total Indian pop lives in urban areas.
indian population in cities
Indian Population in Cities
  • ***Total City Pop Total NA Pop % of total city pop 1990 NA Pop
  • Guadalupe* 5,288 2,310 43.7 1,356
  • Flagstaff* 52,89 45,284 10.0 3,918
  • Tucson* 486,699 11,038 2.3 4,613
  • Phoenix* 1,321,045 26,696 2.0 15,700
  • Tempe* 158,625 3,186 2.0 1,652
  • Mesa* 396,375 6,572 1.7 2,621
  • Glendale* 218,812 3,181 1.5 1,201
  • Yuma* 77,515 1,168 1.5 438
  • Prescott 33,938 432 1.3 298
  • Chandler* 176,581 2,121 1.2 843
  • Show Low 7,695 302 0.8 163
  • Sierra Vista 37,775 313 0.8 180
  • LakeHavasu 41,938 291 0.7 116
  • Peoria* 108,364 734 0.7 257
  • Scottsdale* 202,705 1,240 0.6 669
  • Gilbert* 109,697 676 0.6 115
  • Totals 3,435,94665,5541.934,140***some cities left out like in the Phoenix Mesa Metropolitican Statistical Area (MSA) with tiny NA populations [less than 300 for all the smaller cities/towns].*Cities/towns in Arizona MSAs.
  • Urban, Reservation and Rural Indian PopulationsTotal Native American Population: 255,879Total NA City Population: 65,554Total Reservation Population: 160,820Total Rural [non-reservation] Population: 29,505
tribal colleges
Tribal Colleges
  • Dine Tribal College 1968
  • Tohono O’odham College
  • 34 tribal colleges total (AIHEC)
northern arizona univ 1 264 29
Northern Arizona Univ 1,264/29
  • Center for American Indian Economic Dev
  • Inst for Tribal Environmental Professionals
  • Applied Indigenous Studies
  • Institute for Native Americans
  • Native American Student Services
  • Native American Cancer Res Partnership
  • Navajo Nation Archaeological Dept
northern ariz univ undergrad 10
Northern Ariz Univ Undergrad (10)
  • Biomedical Professions Scholarship, Dr. William Grimes: for undergrad NA on a medical career track
  • Fort McDowell Wassaja Memorial Scholarship through the NA Student Services program at NAU
  • Navajo Scholars program
  • Forestry Multicultural Scholarship
  • Virgil Masayesva NA Environmental Education Scholarship Fund: for NA who are either environmental engineering and environmental science majors
  • Intertribal Timber Council scholarship
  • Thunderbird Chapter of the Academy of Certified Hazardous Materials Managers: for undergrad tribal environmental professional track students
  • Proctor & Gamble Science Scholars Fund
  • Arnn Memorial Scholarship: for NA students in health science field
  • Morris K Udall Native American Congressional Internship
northern ariz univ graduate 2
Northern Ariz Univ Graduate (2)
  • Minority Student Development, funded by National Institute of Health, for grad students in biomedical career track
  • Each department states they fund graduate students
university of arizona
University of Arizona
  • American Indian Studies Program
  • Arizona Indian Tribes
  • Native Peoples Tech Assist Office (Law S.)
  • American Indian Lang Develop Institute
  • Native American Student Affairs
univ of ariz undergraduate 15
Univ of Ariz Undergraduate (15)
  • Annie Wauneka Scholarship
  • Navajo Nation Scholarship and Financial Assistance
  • Betty B, Chastain Educational Foundation, targets NA students
  • Catching the Dream, formerly known as the NA Scholarship Fund
  • Native American Student Affairs Scholarship
  • Navajo Nation Chapter House scholarship
  • Navajo Department of Workforce Development
  • UA/Sloan AIGP
  • Accenture Undergraduate Scholarships
  • Gates Millennium Scholarship
  • EPA Tribal Lands Environmental Science scholarship
  • Wells Fargo Scholars
  • First in My Family, for first generations
  • Pacqua Yaqui of Arizona Higher Education Office, provides scholarships to NA at any of the three state schools
  • Daughters of the American Revolution NA Scholarship Fund, Lake Havasu City,
univ of ariz graduate 9
Univ of Ariz Graduate (9)
  • Bureau of Indian Affairs, education loans
  • Wells Fargo
  • Accenture Graduate Grants
  • Ethel and Emory Fast Scholarship graduate and undergrad scholarships
  • Intertribal Timber Council Scholarship, targets grad students in natural resources
  • American Indian Education Foundation
  • Indian Health Career Award, Phoenix Indian Medical Auxiliary
  • American Indian Professional Training Program in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology
  • Indian Health Service Scholarships: for NA in medical fields
arizona state univ 1 225 202
Arizona State Univ 1,225/202
  • Special Advisor to the President
  • American Indian Studies Program
  • American Indian Policy & Leadership Ctr
  • American Indian Student Services
  • American Indian Programs (Polytechnic)
asu undergraduate 13
ASU Undergraduate (13)
  • Annual ASU Tribal Scholarship Fair held every spring, purpose to attract NA students and demonstrate opportunities for financial support
  • Maroon & Gold Scholarship: $4500/year, renewable on limited funding, entering freshmen through seniors, targeted to ethnic minorities, but not restricted to Native Americans
  • Dorrance Scholarship: $36,000 total, plus $4000 travel grant, first generation to attend college
  • Angels Care Scholarship: $3000/year, preference given to NA, although all students of color are considered.
  • Labriola Gric: award varies, for members of Gila River Indian Community
  • Art Hamilton “Living the Dream” Scholarship: $1000/ renewable each year, students from underrepresented communities
  • Sun Devil Promise: pays tuition, books, fees, room &board, open to all low-income AZ students
  • ASU Parents’ Associations Scholarship: for first generation students
  • Secondary Teaching Certificate and Master’s in Education: specifically for NA Teacher Professional Development
  • Wells Fargo Am Indian Scholarship Program:
  • Indian Health Career Award
  • Veterans’ for Peace scholarship, administered through Navajo Nation
  • Morris K Udall Scholarship: for juniors, seniors seeking a career in tribal health, tribal public policy or environment
asu graduate student 14
ASU Graduate Student (14)
  • Underrepresented Graduate Enrichment Match: assists academic units in recruiting first year graduate students from underrepresented communities
  • The American Educational Research Association Minority Fellowship Program: $12,000 one-year stipend and up to $1,000 in travel support to attend the AERA Annual Meeting, targets all students of color
  • American Indian Graduate Center (AIGC) Graduate Fellowships: based on need, any federally recognized tribe
  • American Political Science Association Minority Fellowship: $4000/ year, includes all ethnic minorities
  • Ford Foundation Predoctoral Diversity Fellowships: $20,000/year plus $3000 toward tuition, purpose is to increase diversity in higher education
  • Ford Foundation Postdoctoral Diversity Fellowships: $40,000/ one year stipend, to increase numbers of professors who can and will teach diversity to students
  • The Fund for Theological Education: North American Doctoral Fellows Program: $10-15k/year, for grad students underrepresented in religion and theological fields
  • Government Finance Officers Association of the U.S. and Canada: Minorities in Government Finance Scholarship: for grad students in public admin, accounting, finance, political science, or economics who belong to a US-census recognized ethnic minority group
  • National Consortium for Graduate Degrees for Minorities in Engineering and Science, Inc. (GEM): varies, $10-14k/ year, minority students in eng and science
  • Nonprofit Sector Research Fund (NSRF): William Randolph Hearst Endowed Fellowship for Minority Students:$2-5k/year, for ethnic minority students researching and working in the non-profit sectors
  • Northeast Consortium for Faculty Diversity Visiting Dissertation Scholars Program: first dissertation support, $25-32K
  • Semiconductor Research Corporation Master's Scholarships Program: 1900/month, open to women and minorities, two years of support for MA work
  • Society for advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans offers grants of various amounts
  • Gates Millenniums Scholars: targets underrepresented grad students in sciences, library, health, or education
economics resources

ECONOMICS & RESOURCES

Arizona Tribal Income and Poverty Statistics, 1999 (2000 Census)

council of energy resource tribes
Council of Energy Resource Tribes
  • Formed in 1975
  • 25 energy tribes
  • Office in Denver
  • Office in Washington
four corners area
Four Corners Area
  • In 1970s FCA was largest strip mining for coal operation in the world.
cert membership
CERT Membership
  • 53 tribes in U.S.
  • 4 Canadian First Nations
  • Chris Devers (Pauma Band of Mission Indians of California) is Chairman of CERT since 2005
natural resources
Natural Resources
  • Hopi has coal, uranium, oil & natural gas.
  • Hualapai have uranium, oil, natural gas, hydroelectric.
  • Navajo Nation contains coal, oil, natural gas, uranium & geothermal.
  • White Mountain Apache has timber.
national family income
National Family Income
  • Nation-wide avg median family income in US:
  • 2005 - $46,326
  • 2004 - $45,817
  • 2003-2005 (3-year average) - 46,037
  • 2000- $41,994
  • The average median family income for Arizona:
  • 2000 - $40,558
  • The nation-wide avg median family income for Native Americans & Alaska Natives:
  • 2000 - $30,599
indian family income in arizona
Indian Family Income in Arizona
  • U.S. census for 2000 lists 11 recognized tribes within Arizona and offers an avg median family income for each.  They range from $18,416 to $33,750.  The census charts for Arizona do not include tribes who have a headquarters outside of Arizona (such as the Navajo).
  • Fort Sill Apache - not enough samples
  • Jicarilla Apache - not enough samples
  • San Carlos - $ 18,416
  • White Mountain Apaches - $ 17,227
  • Colorado River Indian Comm. - $ 26,250
  • Gila River - $ 26,339
  • Pima - $ 26,071
  • Salt River Pima - $ 30,450
  • Ak-Chin - $ 23,333
  • Tohono O'odham - $ 21,498
  • Yavapai Apache - $ 33,750
indian gaming sites 24
Apache Gold Best Western Hotel in San Carlos

Apache Gold Casino in San Carlos

Blue Water Resort & Casino in Parker

Bucky’s & Yavapai Casino in Prescott

Casino Arizona in Scottsdale

Casino De Sol in Tucson

Casino of the Sun in Tucson

Cliff Castle Casino in Camp Verde

Cocopah Bingo and Casino in Somerton

Desert Diamond Casino Nogales in Tucson

Desert Diamond Casino Pima in Sahuerita

Fort McDowell Casino in Fountain Hills

Golden Ha San Casino in Ajo

Harrah’s AkChin Casino Resort in Maricopa

Hon-Dah Resort, Casino & Conference Center in Pinetop

Lone Butte Casino in Chandler

Mazatzal Casino in Payson

Paradise Casino in Yuma

Payson Lodge in Payson

Prescott Resort and Conference Center in Prescott

Spirit Mountain Casino in Mohave Valley

The Lodge at Cliff Castle in Camp Verde

Vee Quiva Casino in Laveen

Wildhorse Pass Casino in Chandler.

Indian Gaming Sites (24)
ten leading causes of death
Ten Leading Causes of Death
  • The 10 leading causes of death for American Indians & Alaska Natives in US for 2002:
  • Heart disease
  • Cancer
  • Unintentional injuries
  • Diabetes
  • Stroke
  • Chronic liver disease & cirrhosis
  • Chronic lower respiratory disease
  • Suicide
  • Influenza & Pneumonia
  • Homicide
diseases
Diseases
  • (All cases are per 100,000, unless otherwise noted & age-adjusted where applicable.)
  • Number of gonorrhea cases has steadily increased 91 incidents per 100,000 in 1995 to 142 in 2005.
  • Number of fetal alcohol syndrome births declining, from 1.7 per 1000 live births in 1997 to 0.16 in 2005.
  • Incidences of birth defects (Congenital anomalies) declining from 2.8/100 live births in 1995 to 1.5 in 2005.
  • Levels of diabetes during pregnancy increasing from 55/1,000 live births in 1993 to 82.5 in 2005.
  • Diabetes is highest among Navajo, Hopi, & Pima communities & 4 times higher than general pop estimates in US. Diabetes-related deaths increasing among tribes from 129.3/100,000 in 2000 to 138.9 in 2005.
diabetes
Diabetes
  • Breakdown of diabetes deaths in 2005:
    • 205 total, 144 were on the reservation.
    • Reservation Tribes with highest incidents:
  • Navajo, 52
  • Gila River Indian Community, 17
  • Pascua Yaqui, 16
  • San Carlos Apache Tribe, 16
  • Tohono O’dham, 11
  • Hopi, 7
  • White Mountain Apache, 6
    • 61 deaths were off-reservation, with 31 in Maricopa County
cirrhosis alcoholism
Cirrhosis & Alcoholism
  • Cirrhosis-related & chronic liver-related deaths from 61.7 per 100,000 in 2000, to 51.2 per 100,000 in 2005.
  • Alcohol-related deaths:
    • 108 deaths total, 67 on reservation
    • Highest tribes: Navajo, 25; White Mountain Apache 11; Tohono O’dham, 8; Pascua Yaqui & San Carlos Apache both with 4.
    • Off reservation death total, 41, with largest % in Maricopa County (25), Pima County (4), elsewhere in AZ (12)
infant mortality
Infant Mortality
  • Infant mortality, 9.6 in 2000 to 8.3 in 2005.
mining disease
Mining & Disease
  • Uranium mines, both operational & abandoned, are blamed for cancer rates at the Four Corners, which are among the highest in the nation. During the cold war, contaminated & radioactive materials such as crushed rock washed down from the mines eventually became building materials for hogans & other homes. Lung cancer, cervical cancer & congestive heart failure are among the top diseases here.
culture language

CULTURE & LANGUAGE

250 est languages now

native speakers
Native Speakers
  • Navajo
  • Iroquois
  • Inuit
  • Tohono O’odham
  • Pima
  • Apache
  • Lakota
tribal museums 250
Tribal Museums (250)
  • Colorado River Indian Tribes
  • Hopi
  • Cocopah Tribe
  • Ak-Chin
  • Gila River
  • Havasupai
  • Navajo
  • Yuma-Quechan
  • Salt River-Pima-Maricopa
  • White Mountain Apache
16 tribal courts
Hopi

Navajo

Gila River

Havasupai

Hualapai

Kaibab-Paiute

White Mt. Apache

Yavapai-Apache

Ak-Chin

Colorado River

Ft. McDowell Yavapai

Ft. Mohave

Pascua Yaqui

San Carlos Apache

Tohono O’odham

Zuni

16 Tribal Courts
navajo office in washington
Navajo Office in Washington
  • Since August 1984 our office has served as an extension of the Navajo Nation Government to represent our concerns to the Federal Government and Agencies in Washington, D.C. As a division within the Executive Branch of the Navajo Nation Government, the employees of the NNWO are dedicated to enhancing the Navajo Nation at the Federal level.
  • www.nnwo.org
navajo times
Navajo Times
  • In 1961 The Navajo Times started as an education newsletter & became a weekly two years later. The paper lost almost $1 million after change from a weekly to a daily in 1984 & now it is an independently owned newspaper.
hopi tribe 3 depts
Hopi Tribe 3 Depts.
  • Human Services (8)
  • Natural Resources (7)
  • Administration and Technical Services (9)
  • Hopi Tribe Newspaper
11 tribal leaders
11 Tribal Leaders
  • 11 have several to 12 yrs of admin exp
  • 6 have some college education
  • 3 hold master’s degree
  • 1 is a native speaker
  • 2 have military experience
  • 1 has several yrs of business exp
  • 2 have previous work in health field
profile of tribal leadership
Profile of Tribal Leadership
  • Several years of administrative experience
  • Some college, bachelors degree
bib self determination self govt
Bib: Self-Determination & Self-Govt
  • Wilkinson, Charles. Blood Struggle: The Rise of Modern Indian Nations (New York and
  • London: W.W. Norton, 2005).
  • Castile, George Pierre. Taking Charge: Native American Self-Determination and
  • Federal Indian Policy, 1975-1993 (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2006).
  • Miller, Mark Edward. Forgotten Tribes: Unrecognized Indians and the Federal
  • Acknowledgement Process (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004).
  • O'Brien, Sharon. American Indian Tribal Governments. (Norman: University of
  • Oklahoma Press, 1990).
  • Forbes, Jack. Native Americans and Nixon (Los Angeles: American Indian Studies
  • Center, UCLA, 1972).
  • Kersey, Jr., Harry A. An Assumption of Sovereignty: Social and Political Transformation
  • among the Florida Seminoles, 1953-1979 (Gainesville: University Press of
  • Florida, 1996).
  • Finger, John R. Cherokee Americans: The Eastern Band of Cherokees in the Twentieth
  • Century (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991).
  • Fowler, Loretta. Tribal Sovereignty and the Historical Imagination: Cheyenne-Arapaho
  • Politics (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2002).
  • Cornell, Stephen. The Return of the Native: American Indian Political Resurgence (New
  • York: Oxford University Press, 1988).
  • Fixico, Donald L. The Invasion of Indian Country in the Twentieth Century: Tribal Natural Resources and American Capitalism (Niwot, CO: Univ Press of Colo, 1998).
  • Burton, Lloyd. American Indian Water Rights and the Limits of Law (Lawrence:
  • University Press of Kansas, 1991).
  • Doherty, Robert. Disputed Waters: Native Americans & the Great Lakes Fishery
  • (Pittsburg: University of Pittsburg Press, 1990).
  • Sorkin, Alan L. American Indians and Federal Aid. (Washington, D.C.: The Brookings
  • Institution, 1971).
mv to thank you

MV TO“Thank You”

Donald L. Fixico

Arizona State University

Donald.Fixico@asu.edu