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What is the biggest organism ever?. Apatosaurus ?. Blue whale?. Coast redwood?. None of the above – it’s a fungus. A single clone of the “honey mushroom” Armillaria can cover more than 2,200 acres (1,600 football fields) . Fungi. Chapter 31. Fungal Origins. Choanoflagellates.

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what is the biggest organism ever
What is the biggest organism ever?

Apatosaurus?

Blue whale?

Coast redwood?

none of the above it s a fungus
None of the above – it’s a fungus

A single clone of the “honey mushroom” Armillaria can cover more than 2,200 acres (1,600 football fields)

fungi

Fungi

Chapter 31

fungal origins
Fungal Origins

Choanoflagellates

Diplomonadida

Fungi

Parabasala

Euglenozoa

Chlorophyta

Rhodophyta

Radiolaria

Cercozoa

Animalia

Plantae

Alveolata

Stramenopila

Amoebozoa

Ancestral eukaryote

Figure 28.4

fungal form and function

Fungal Form and Function

Hyphae- thread-like

filaments, one cell thick

Reproductive

structure or fruiting body

Anatomy

Hyphae and mycelium

See Fig. 31.2

Mycelium – interwoven mass of hyphae

fungal form and function6

Fungal Form and Function

Anatomy

Hyphae and mycelium

Hyphae

Mycelium

fungal form and function7

Fungal Form and Function

Aseptate hypha,

a.k.a. coenocytic

Septate hypha

Anatomy

See Fig. 31.3

fungal form and function8

Fungal Form and Function

Anatomy

Cell walls contain chitin

fungal form and function10

Fungal Form and Function

Unlike plants and animals,

no distinct embryo is formed

during early development

fungal form and function11

Fungal Form and Function

Nutrition

Chemoheterotrophic

Fungi exude exoenzymes that break down organic molecules that the fungi can absorb and use as a supply of both energy and carbon

fungal form and function12

Fungal Form and Function

Saprobic – if they digest dead organisms and waste products

Nutrition

Chemoheterotrophic

Parasitic – if they digest live organisms

Mutualistically symbiotic – form associations with other organisms for mutual benefit

fungal life cycles

Fungal Life Cycles

Haploid – most fungal hyphae and all spores have haploid nuclei

Diploid – diploid nuclei are found transiently during the sexual phase (if present)

Three ploidy types

Heterokaryon – unfused nuclei from different parents occupying the same unit of hypha

fungal life cycles14

Fungal Life Cycles

Reproduction

Asexual – default mode under stable

conditions; spores are produced

slide15

Fungal Life Cycles

Haploid (1n) spores

are produced by

mitosis

Key

Heterokaryotic

stage

Haploid (n)

Heterokaryotic

PLASMOGAMY

(fusion of cytoplasm)

Diploid (2n)

Spores are genetically

identical to original

mycelium

KARYOGAMY

(fusion of nuclei)

Spore-producing

structures

Zygote

SEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Spores

ASEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Mycelium

Spores disperse and

germinate to

produce new

myceliun

MEIOSIS

GERMINATION

GERMINATION

Spore-producing

structures

Spores

See Fig. 31.5

fungal form and function16

Fungal Form and Function

Reproduction

Asexual – default mode under stable

conditions; spores are produced

Sexual – usually only under stressful

conditions; spores are produced;

many mating types possible

(essentially like having many different

sexes or genders)

sexual reproduction in fungi

+

hyphae (n)

fused hyphae (n + n)

zygote (2n)

+

+

sexual spores (n)

zygotes (2n)

Sexual reproduction in fungi

fusion of compatible hyphae(plasmogamy)

dispersal of spores

fusion of nuclei(karyogamy)

meiosis of “zygote-like” structures

slide18

Sexual reproduction in fungi

Haploid spores may disperse long distances away from the fruiting body

slide19

Fungal Life Cycles

Key

Fusion of compatible hyphae (plasmogamy)

Heterokaryotic

stage

Haploid (n)

Heterokaryotic

PLASMOGAMY

(fusion of cytoplasm)

Diploid (2n)

KARYOGAMY

(fusion of nuclei)

Spore-producing

structures

Zygote

SEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Spores

ASEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Mycelium

MEIOSIS

GERMINATION

GERMINATION

Spore-producing

structures

Spores

See Fig. 31.5

slide20

Fungal Life Cycles

Key

Fusion of compatible hyphae (plasmogamy)

…initiates a heterokaryotic phase

Heterokaryotic

stage

Haploid (n)

Heterokaryotic

PLASMOGAMY

(fusion of cytoplasm)

Diploid (2n)

KARYOGAMY

(fusion of nuclei)

Spore-producing

structures

Zygote

SEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Spores

ASEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Mycelium

MEIOSIS

GERMINATION

GERMINATION

Spore-producing

structures

Spores

See Fig. 31.5

slide21

Fungal Life Cycles

Key

Fusion of nuclei (karyogamy)

Heterokaryotic

stage

Haploid (n)

Heterokaryotic

PLASMOGAMY

(fusion of cytoplasm)

Diploid (2n)

KARYOGAMY

(fusion of nuclei)

Spore-producing

structures

Zygote

SEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Spores

ASEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Mycelium

MEIOSIS

GERMINATION

GERMINATION

Spore-producing

structures

Spores

See Fig. 31.5

slide22

Fungal Life Cycles

Key

Fusion of nuclei (karyogamy)

…initiates a zygotic phase

Heterokaryotic

stage

Haploid (n)

Heterokaryotic

PLASMOGAMY

(fusion of cytoplasm)

Diploid (2n)

KARYOGAMY

(fusion of nuclei)

Spore-producing

structures

Zygote

SEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Spores

ASEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Mycelium

MEIOSIS

GERMINATION

GERMINATION

Spore-producing

structures

Spores

See Fig. 31.5

slide23

Fungal Life Cycles

Key

Fusion of nuclei (karyogamy)

…initiates a zygotic phase

…which is perhaps best described as “zygote like”

Heterokaryotic

stage

Haploid (n)

Heterokaryotic

PLASMOGAMY

(fusion of cytoplasm)

Diploid (2n)

KARYOGAMY

(fusion of nuclei)

Spore-producing

structures

Zygote

SEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Spores

ASEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Mycelium

MEIOSIS

GERMINATION

GERMINATION

Spore-producing

structures

Spores

See Fig. 31.5

slide24

Fungal Life Cycles

Key

Meiosis in “zygote-like” cells produces spores or cells that will produce spores

Heterokaryotic

stage

Haploid (n)

Heterokaryotic

PLASMOGAMY

(fusion of cytoplasm)

Diploid (2n)

KARYOGAMY

(fusion of nuclei)

Spore-producing

structures

Zygote

SEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Spores

ASEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Mycelium

MEIOSIS

GERMINATION

GERMINATION

Spore-producing

structures

Spores

See Fig. 31.5

slide25

Fungal Life Cycles

Both asexual & sexual reproduction produce haploid spores

Key

Heterokaryotic

stage

Haploid (n)

Heterokaryotic

PLASMOGAMY

(fusion of cytoplasm)

Diploid (2n)

KARYOGAMY

(fusion of nuclei)

Spore-producing

structures

Zygote

SEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Spores

ASEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Mycelium

MEIOSIS

GERMINATION

GERMINATION

Spore-producing

structures

Spores

See Fig. 31.5

slide26

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Zygote fungi

Club fungi

Sac fungi

Chytrids

Zygomycota

Ascomycota

Basidiomycota

Glomeromycota

Chytridiomycota

Fugal Diversity

5 phyla

Over 100,000 species described

Over 1000 additional species described each year

Loss of flagella*

See Fig. 31.9

*Flagella may have been lost multiple

times in the fist two lineages

classification of fungi

Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Chytrids

Ancient group – diverged earliest from the other fungi

classification of fungi28

Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Chytrids

Ancient group – diverged earliest from the other fungi

Aquatic –

the only fungi with flagellated spores (zoospores)

slide29

Sexual reproduction in a chytrid:

flagellated spores

spores

classification of fungi30

Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Chytrids

Ancient group – diverged earliest from the other fungi

Aquatic –

the only fungi with flagellated spores

(zoospores)

Saprobic – majority

Parasitic – some

classification of fungi31

Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Zygomycetes = Zygote fungi

Sexual reproduction via zygosporangia (resistant heterokaryons) that produce genetically variable spores

slide32

Key

Black Bread Mold

Haploid (1n)

Heterokaryotic (1n + 1n)

Diploid (2n)

Plasmogamy

Mating type (+)

Mating type (-)

Sexual reproduction

Zygosporangium

Karyogamy

Asexual

reproduction

Meiosis

See Fig. 31.12

classification of fungi33

Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Zygomycetes = Zygote fungi

Sexual reproduction via zygosporangia (resistant heterokaryons) that produce genetically variable spores

Asexual reproduction via sporangia that produce spores

slide34

Key

Black Bread Mold

Haploid (1n)

Heterokaryotic (1n + 1n)

Diploid (2n)

Plasmogamy

Mating type (+)

Mating type (-)

Sexual Reproduction

Zygosporangium

Karyogamy

Asexual

Reproduction

Meiosis

See Fig. 31.12

classification of fungi35

Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Zygomycetes = Zygote fungi

Sexual reproduction via zygosporangia (resistant heterokaryons) that produce genetically variable spores

Asexual reproduction via sporangia that produce spores

Mostly saprobic decayers of organic matter, e.g., soft fruit rot fungi and black bread mold

classification of fungi36

Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Zygomycetes = Zygote fungi

Sexual reproduction via zygosporangia (resistant heterokaryons) that produce genetically variable spores

Asexual reproduction via sporangia that produce spores

Mostly saprobic decayers of organic matter,

e.g., soft fruit rot fungi and black bread mold

Some parasites, e.g., single-celled microsporidia

classification of fungi37

Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Glomeromycetes = Arbuscular mycorrhizae

Associated with ~90% of plant species

classification of fungi38

Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi

Sexual reproduction via spores produced in asci (sac-like cases)

slide39

Key

Neurospora

Haploid (1n)

Heterokaryotic (1n + 1n)

Conidia of mating type (-)

Diploid (2n)

Asexual

Reproduction

Plasmogamy

Hyphae of mating type (+)

Karyogamy

Sexual Reproduction

Meiosis

SeeFig. 31.17

Ascocarp, ascus,and ascospores

classification of fungi40

Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi

Sexual reproduction via spores produced in asci (sac-like cases)

Asexual reproduction via naked spores (conidia)

slide41

Key

Neurospora: an ascomycete

Haploid (1n)

Heterokaryotic (1n + 1n)

Conidia of mating type (-)

Diploid (2n)

Asexual

Reproduction

Plasmogamy

Hyphae of mating type (+)

Karyogamy

Sexual Reproduction

Meiosis

SeeFig. 31.17

Ascocarp, ascus,and ascospores

classification of fungi42

Classification of Fungi

Many saprobic species,e.g., Scarlet cups

Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi

classification of fungi43

Classification of Fungi

Many parasites, especially of plants, but also of animals, e.g., Candida yeasts

Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi

classification of fungi44

Classification of Fungi

Many symbionts with plants, e.g., truffles

Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi

classification of fungi45

Classification of Fungi

Morels – Delicacy or deadly

Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi

classification of fungi46

Classification of Fungi

Sources of many interesting chemicals

E.g., Penicillium – the source of penicillin

Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi

classification of fungi47

Classification of Fungi

Sources of many interesting chemicals

E.g., the source of LSD

Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi

classification of fungi48

Classification of Fungi

The yeasts used to brew beer…

Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi

classification of fungi49

Classification of Fungi

…and bake breads and pizza crusts…

Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi

classification of fungi50

Classification of Fungi

…but the mushrooms that top your pizza come from a different phylum…

classification of fungi51

Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Basidiomycetes = Club fungi

Include:

common mushroom, puffballs,

stink horns, shelf fungi,

plant-parasitic smuts & rusts

classification of fungi53

Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Basidiomycetes = Club fungi

Include:

common mushroom, puffballs,

stink horns, shelf fungi,

plant-parasitic smuts & rusts

Sexual reproduction via club-shaped reproductive structures, basidia, containing basidiospores

slide54

A mushroom-forming basidiomycete

Plasmogamy

SeeFig. 31.20

Basidiocarp

Mating type (-)

Mating type (+)

Sexual Reproduction

Basidia with basidiospores

Karyogamy

Meiosis

Key

Haploid (1n)

Heterokaryotic (1n + 1n)

Diploid (2n)

classification of fungi55

Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Basidiomycetes = Club fungi

Include:

common mushroom, puffballs,

stink horns, shelf fungi,

plant-parasitic smuts & rusts

Sexual reproduction via club-shaped reproductive structures, basidia, containing basidiospores

Asexual reproduction is uncommon

slide56

Phylum: Basidiomycetes = Club fungi

Fruiting bodies of the “inky cap” mushroom

slide57

Phylum: Basidiomycetes = Club fungi

Basidia are generally found on the surface of gills

gills

basidiospores

slide58

Phylum: Basidiomycetes = Club fungi

Basidia are generally found on the surface of gills

Amanita spore pattern

slide59

Phylum: Basidiomycetes = Club fungi

Shelf fungi

Giant puffball

classification of fungi61

Classification of Fungi

Deuteromycetes - Imperfect Fungi

Eclectic group of unclassified species

classification of fungi62

Classification of Fungi

Deuteromycetes - Imperfect Fungi

Eclectic group of unclassified species

Sexual structures unknown (i.e., no

flagellated spores, zygosporangia,

asci, or basidia), so these haven’t been classified

classification of fungi63

Classification of Fungi

Deuteromycetes - Imperfect Fungi

Eclectic group of currently unclassified species

Sexual structures unknown (i.e., no

flagellated spores, zygosporangia,

asci, or basidia), so these haven’t been classified

Includes many molds and mildews (which demonstrates that certain commonly recognized “groups” are not good phylogenetic groups)

functional biology of fungi

Functional Biology of Fungi

Ecosystems on Earth would collapse without the molds and mildews (plus many bacteria) that break down organic matter into inorganic nutrients

Molds

Many rapidly growing, asexually reproducing fungi (mostly ascomycetes and basidiomycetes)

functional biology of fungi65

Functional Biology of Fungi

Occur in the Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes & Zygomycetes

Yeasts

Many unicellular fungi that inhabit liquid or moist surfaces and reproduce asexually

Free-living, parasitic, and mutualistic symbiotic forms exist

functional biology of fungi66

Functional Biology of Fungi

Mycorrhizae

Symbiotic associations with plants (representatives known from all fungal phyla, not just Glomeromycetes)

functional biology of fungi67

Functional Biology of Fungi

Lichens

Obligate symbiotic associations with algae or cyanobacteria

functional biology of fungi68

Functional Biology of Fungi

Chestnut blight

Ringworm

Parasites

functional biology of fungi69

Functional Biology of Fungi

Aflatoxin

Toxin producers

functional biology of fungi70

Staphylococcus

Penicillium

Zone of inhibited growth

Functional Biology of Fungi

The first antibiotic used by humans

Biotic control agents

functional biology of fungi71

Functional Biology of Fungi

Used against termites, rice weevils, etc.

Biotic control agents

slide72

Functional Biology of Fungi

Interesting example…

of agriculture in insects

Leaf-cutter ants cut and carry leaf fragments to their nests where the fragments are used to farm fungi

slide73

Functional Biology of Fungi

Interesting example… of fungal cowboys

Some soil fungisnare nematodeworms in hyphalnooses and thendigest them

unlucky nematode

fungal hypha

slide74

Functional Biology of Fungi

Interesting example… of fungi & conservation

The golden toad became extinct within the past 20 years, owing to anthropogenicenvironmental deterioration,which also facilitated pathogenic chytrid fungi