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Mid-Term Review. 2008. An example of a population is all trees in a forest. all maple trees in a forest. all plants in a forest. all animals in a forest. In which of the following relationships is neither species harmed? Predation Parasitism Competition Commensalism.

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Mid-Term Review

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An example of a population is
  • all trees in a forest.
  • all maple trees in a forest.
  • all plants in a forest.
  • all animals in a forest.
In which of the following relationships is neither species harmed?
  • Predation
  • Parasitism
  • Competition
  • Commensalism
Which of the following would most likely cause a large number of density-independent deaths in a population?
  • winter storms
  • predators
  • disease-carrying insects
  • limited resources
During Stage 2 of a population’s demographic transition, the death rate
  • increases.
  • remains the same.
  • decreases.
  • is zero.
The number of wild horses per square kilometer in a prairie is the horse populations
  • density.
  • size.
  • dispersion.
  • birth rate.
Which of the following is one of the main properties used to describe a population?
  • number of individuals
  • number of species
  • color of individuals
  • kind of adaptations
The level of biodiversity that involves a variety of habits and communities is
  • ecosystem diversity.
  • population diversity.
  • genetic diversity.
  • species diversity.
Competition for food cannot occur
  • between two populations.
  • among members of the same population.
  • among populations whose niches overlap.
  • between animals from two different ecosystems.
The difference between a predator and a parasite is that a predator
  • usually kills and eats its prey.
  • lives in or on a host.
  • benefits from another organism.
  • harms another organism.
Professionals who study and make predictions about human populations are called
  • stenographers.
  • geologists.
  • demographers.
  • populists.
Which of the following organisms has the highest reproductive potential?
  • dogs
  • bacteria
  • elephants
  • humans
Thick fur on deer is not an example of coevolution. Why?
  • because thick fur is an adaptation
  • because deer with thick fur live longer
  • because thick fur evolved in response to a cold climate, not in response to other organisms
  • because in the lowlands, where the climate was sunny and warm, deer that did not have thick fur became separated from other deer that did have thick fur
Which factor contributed most to the exponential growth of the human population?
  • more food, better hygiene
  • higher fertility rates
  • higher birth rates
  • increased immigration
Each of the following is an example of a parasite except
  • a roundworm in a human’s intestine.
  • a tick on a cat.
  • a cow in a pasture.
  • mistletoe on a tree.
Educating women worldwide has lowered birthrates partly because
  • educated women need to bear many children to ensure that some will survive.
  • educated women may learn family-planning techniques.
  • educated women contribute less to their family income.
  • All of the above
Human population growth was most rapid during which period of human history?
  • Ice Ages
  • Bronze and Iron Ages
  • Stone Ages
  • Modern Age
Because birth rates have begun to fall, Earth’s population will
  • soon stabilize at the level it is today—about 6 billion.
  • begin to decrease until it reaches 5 billion.
  • increase for a short time and then decrease to current levels.
  • stabilize somewhere around 9 billion by 2050.
During the _____ period(s), humans altered their habitats.
  • hunter-gatherer
  • Industrial Revolution
  • agricultural revolution d.
  • All of the above
Which of the following makes it difficult to reduce population growth?
  • High literacy rates result in women wanting to have more children.
  • Population sizes will not decline until some people start having to do without food and other necessities of life.
  • Many people live in cities, where large families are an advantage.
  • Many people have low literacy and limited access to healthcare.
Scientists predict population sizes by using
  • survivorship, migration, life expectancy, and replacement structure.
  • age structure, fertility rate, and migration.
  • replacement rate, fertility rate, age rates, and survivorship.
  • age structure, survivorship, fertility rate, and migration.
World population growth will eventually stop when
  • the population reaches 9 billion.
  • most countries have replacement-level fertility rates.
  • most countries have higher death rates.
  • the worldwide infant mortality rate increases.
An endangered species is
  • a species in danger of extinction.
  • a species growing on public land.
  • an organism brought to a place where it has not lived before.
  • a species that has disappeared entirely.
Which of the following would not be illegal under the Endangered Species Act?
  • capturing a wild animal listed as a threatened species for exhibition in a zoo, provided the animal is well cared for
  • digging up an endangered plant in a public park and selling it
  • destroying the habitat of an endangered plant during the building of a federal highway
  • having a permit to capture and conduct research with endangered species
How many species are estimated to be living on Earth?
  • between 10,000 and 100,000
  • between 1 and 2 million
  • between 500,000 and 1 million
  • between 10 and 50 million
Which of the following is a reason that wood is considered a limited resource in many developing countries?
  • Wood is used in place of money to buy food.
  • Fuelwood allows people to purify their water by boiling it.
  • Excess wood is used to construct shantytowns.
  • People cut down trees faster than they can grow.
In what part of the world are the greatest number of extinctions occurring?
  • in tropical rain forests
  • in the Arctic
  • in deserts
  • in Europe and the United States
The current rate of species extinction is
  • slower than at any other time in this century.
  • attributable to the actions of humans.
  • the result of natural environmental processes.
  • of little consequence to Earth’s long-term survival.
The fact that organisms are adapted to survive in particular environments helps to explain why
  • captive-breeding programs are often ineffective.
  • non-native plant species never flourish in new areas.
  • habitat destruction accounts for most extinctions.
  • compromise is impossible on environmental issues.
What groups of organisms are most in danger of extinction?
  • with small populations
  • those that migrate or need special habitats
  • those with large populations that breed quickly
  • Both (a) and (b)
Where are many critical biodiversity hotspots located?
  • cities and developed areas of the world
  • islands, tropical rain forests, and coastal areas
  • desert and polar environments
  • All of the above
The major human causes of extinction today are
  • hunting and destroying habitats.
  • polluting and introducing non-native species.
  • Both
  • Neither
The _____ was not a direct result of the Industrial Revolution.
  • overhunting of large mammals
  • improved quality of life
  • shift in the use of fossil fuels
  • growth of cities
Using scientific information from chemistry and biology to devise a plan to clean up a lake and make it healthy again describes
  • ecology.
  • earth science.
  • environmental science.
  • social science.
The “Tragedy of the Commons” describes the conflict between
  • developing and developed nations.
  • individuals and society.
  • farmers and industrialized society.
  • Canada and Mexico.
A sustainable world would be characterized by the
  • preservation of rare animals by relocation from natural habitats to laboratories.
  • invention of safer storage facilities for increased amounts of toxic wastes.
  • maximum exploitation of natural resources using more advanced technologies.
  • indefinite existence of human populations in a healthy and prosperous condition.
An ecological footprint is the
  • mark a person’s shoe makes in soft earth.
  • number of animals a person has killed.
  • amount of land and ocean area needed to support one person.
  • number of trees people cut down.
A resident of _____ is likely to leave the largest ecological footprint.
  • Indonesia
  • the United States
  • Britain
  • India
The classification and collection of data that are in the form of numbers is called
  • statistics.
  • distribution.
  • probability.
  • mean.
Your county is considering buying land to form a nature preserve. On this land, an endangered species of bird is known to breed. Which of the following is a possible negative short-term consequence to the county making this decision?
  • The population of the endangered species increases.
  • Habitat destruction is immediately decreased.
  • Environmental controls are made less strict outside the preserve area.
  • Habitats outside the preserve area become damaged by overdevelopment.
The group that does not receive the experimental treatment in an experiment is the
  • control group.
  • data.
  • experimental group.
  • variable.
By examining _____, scientists can test predictions for situations in which it is impossible or unethical to use experiments.
  • correlations
  • control groups
  • observations
  • variables
What essential characteristic does a good experiment have?
  • A control group is given the experimental treatment.
  • More than one variable is tested.
  • A control is used.
How did the Himalaya Mountains form?
  • erosion
  • glacial movements
  • convection
  • colliding tectonic plates
Before you can make a decision using a decision-making model, what step must you take?
  • Explore the consequences of each option.
  • Consider which values apply to the issue.
  • Gather information.
  • All of the above
What step in a simple environmental decision-making model are you taking when you consider whether or not people will benefit financially from setting aside land as a national park?
  • exploring consequences
  • gathering information
  • making a decision
  • None of the above
When making a decision about whether or not to build a dam, you are considering an economic value when you ask which of the following questions?
  • Will the dam provide new leisure activities?
  • How many jobs will building the dam generate?
  • Will building the dam destroy natural resources?
  • Is it right to build a dam here?
Which of the following includes all of the water on or near Earth’s surface?
  • geosphere
  • atmosphere
  • hydrosphere
  • lithosphere
Which of the following is the most geologically active region on the surface of Earth?
  • glacial valleys
  • boundaries between tectonic plates
  • mountain peaks
  • recharge zones
The ozone layer is located in the
  • stratosphere.
  • thermosphere.
  • ionosphere.
  • troposphere.
What is the estimated temperature of Earth’s inner core?
  • 3,000ºC to 4,000ºC
  • 400ºC to 500ºC
  • 4,000ºC to 5,000ºC
  • 300ºC to 400ºC
In the troposphere, which of the following decreases as altitude increases?
  • temperature
  • pressure
  • radiation
Which of the following is not a mechanism of energy transfer through or within Earth’s atmosphere?
  • radiation
  • conduction
  • condensation
  • convection
Without the greenhouse effect, Earth’s atmosphere would be _____ to support life.
  • too hot
  • too wet
  • too cold
  • lacking the oxygen
When you ask the question, “If a marsh is included as part of a nature preserve, will it protect our water resources?” you are considering which of the following types of values?
  • aesthetic
  • environmental
  • educational
  • social/cultural
Which of the following is not an algae that uses energy from the sun to make food?
  • seaweed
  • giant kelp
  • phytoplankton
  • gymnosperm
The average mass of a wolf in a pack of wolves is an example of
  • mean.
  • sample size.
  • distribution.
  • statistical population.
molten rock that is found in the upper mantle is
  • limestone.
  • granite.
  • magma.
  • basalt.
Ocean water _____ than fresh water.
  • freezes at a higher temperature
  • supports fewer fish
  • contains more salts
  • is less abundant
Deep currents flow along the
  • ocean floor.
  • thermocline.
  • ocean surface.
  • halocline.
Surface currents circulate in different directions, depending on the _____ in which they occur.
  • hemisphere
  • hydrosphere
  • troposphere
  • biosphere
Which of the following is the layer of the ocean extending from the base of the thermocline to the bottom of the ocean?
  • surface layer
  • deep zone
  • thermocline
  • bottom zone
The community of a pond is made up of all the
  • abiotic factors in the water.
  • resources organisms need.
  • habitats in and around the water.
  • populations of fish, insects, and other living organisms.
With respect to energy, Earth is a(n)
  • unstable system.
  • open system.
  • stationary system.
  • closed system.
What part of Earth encompasses all areas where organisms can obtain the energy they need?
  • biosphere
  • atmosphere
  • hydrosphere
  • lithosphere
With respect to matter, Earth is mostly
  • an open system.
  • an ecosystem.
  • a closed system.
  • a biosphere.
The organisms most likely to belong to the same species are
  • people at a football game.
  • birds in a forest.
  • bacteria inside a person’s body.
  • organisms in a pond.
An organism is resistant to a chemical if it
  • has a gene that protects it from the chemical.
  • has been exposed to a small amount of the chemical over time.
  • did not eat anything with the chemical on it.
  • All of the above
In order for evolution to occur in a population, individuals with a trait that is “naturally selected for” must
  • live a long time.
  • reproduce.
  • leave the area.
  • coevolve.
Which of the following converts nitrogen in the air into a form plants can use?
  • bacteria
  • protists
  • fungi
  • animals
In the _____ zone, the water is cool and dark.
  • benthic
  • littoral
  • eutrophic
  • plankton
What mainly distinguishes nekton from benthos?
  • One lives in a freshwater ecosystem and the other lives in salty water.
  • One swims freely and the other often lives attached to a hard surface.
  • One is a predator and the other is a primary producer.
  • All of the above
  • are always saltwater ecosystems.
  • are always freshwater ecosystems.
  • are ecosystems where both fresh water and salt water are present.
  • prevent the development of salt marshes.
Which organism produces most of the food in an aquatic ecosystem?
  • fish
  • phytoplankton
  • barnacles
  • zooplankton
Why doesn’t photosynthesis occur in deep ocean water?
  • The water temperature is too cold.
  • There is no sunlight.
  • There are not enough nutrients.
  • The salinity level of the water is too high.
Which ecosystem has the highest level of salinity?
  • salt marsh
  • river
  • brackish marsh
  • pond
What are the two main types of freshwater wetlands?
  • lakes and ponds
  • littoral zones and benthic zones
  • rivers and streams
  • marshes and swamps
All of the following are characteristics of temperate rain forests except
  • high humidity and moderate temperatures.
  • abundant mosses, ferns, and lichens.
  • low rainfall in summer but abundant snow in winter.
  • large evergreen trees, such as Sitka spruce and Douglas fir.
Most scientists classify organisms into
  • five kingdoms.
  • three kingdoms.
  • six kingdoms.
  • two groups.
The energy in most ecosystems comes from
  • green plants.
  • wind.
  • the sun.
  • All of the above
Which of the following animals is successful because it moves quickly, reproduces rapidly, and has a waterproof external skeleton?
  • ant
  • bird
  • mouse
  • squirrel
Which kind of organism obtains energy only from producers?
  • decomposers
  • omnivores
  • herbivores
  • All of the above
Which of the following describes soil and temperature in an ecosystem?
  • abiotic factors
  • unnecessary factors
  • biotic factors
  • selection factors
Which of the following best describes a population?
  • members of the same species living in the same place at the same time
  • all the red birds in an area
  • all types of organisms living in the same place
  • all members of the same species
Which of the following plants is likely to be a pioneer species?
  • lichen
  • shrub
  • grass
  • oak tree
What kind of natural disaster helps some forest communities by allowing some trees to release their seeds, by clearing away deadwood, and by encouraging new growth?
  • fire
  • windstorm
  • flood
  • drought
Which of the following is not true about temperate deciduous forests?
  • Trees grow lush green leaves in the spring, but lose their leaves in late summer.
  • The soil is rich, and plants cover much of the forest floor.
  • Animals such as squirrels, bears, and deer find food in the form of nuts, berries, and leaves.
Where would an ecologist be least likely to go to study primary succession?
  • a new island formed by a volcanic eruption
  • a gravel-filled valley that had been covered by a glacier until recently
  • a locked, abandoned asphalt parking lot in New York City
  • the Amazon Rain Forest
Plants play a crucial role in the carbon cycle because they
  • do not release carbon dioxide during cellular respiration.
  • allow carbon to enter an ecosystem through photosynthesis.
  • have special bacteria that live in their root systems.
  • are chemically converted into fossil fuels when burned.
What type of succession occurs after a natural process such as a volcanic eruption or flood?
  • primary succession
  • old-field succession
  • secondary succession
  • climax community
Which organism is likely to be in the bottom trophic level of a food chain?
  • leopard seal
  • krill
  • algae
  • killer whale
If you visited a savanna, you would likely see
  • large herds of grazing animals, such as rhinos, gazelles, and giraffes.
  • a dense forest.
  • snow and ice.
  • a coastal ecosystem.
The tundra
  • has a layer of soil that is permanently frozen beneath the top soil.
  • is too cold to support insect life.
  • is resistant to environmental damage because it is usually frozen.
  • All of the above
Taiga is
  • a cold, treeless, desert-like biome found near the North and South Poles.
  • found mostly in Africa.
  • a forest biome dominated by coniferous trees, such as pine, fir, and spruce.
  • a dry, rocky biome found in the central part of South America.
  • contain two ecosystems, hence the name “biome.”
  • are usually described by their vegetation.
  • exist in limited regions of the world.
  • All of the above
As you travel from the North Pole toward the equator, you would expect to see
  • tropical rain forests, then deserts, then taiga.
  • temperate deciduous forests, then taiga, then tropical rain forests.
  • tundra, then grasslands, then tropical rain forests.
  • taiga, then desert, then tundra.
Which of the following would you expect to see in the emergent layer of a tropical rain forest?
  • grasses, insects, and small succulents
  • eagles, bats, and snakes
  • lichens, mosses, and dwarf woody plants
  • epiphytes, small burrowing mammals, and burrowing toads
The distance north or south of the equator, as measured in degrees, is called
  • altitude.
  • longitude.
  • latitude.
  • magnitude.
Which of the following is located primarily in coastal areas that have Mediterranean-style climates with warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters?
  • tallgrass prairie
  • tundra
  • savanna
  • chaparral
In the _____ zone, life is diverse and abundant.
  • benthic
  • littoral
  • eutrophic
  • plankton