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Mid-Term Review. 2008. An example of a population is all trees in a forest. all maple trees in a forest. all plants in a forest. all animals in a forest. In which of the following relationships is neither species harmed? Predation Parasitism Competition Commensalism.

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An example of a population is

  • all trees in a forest.

  • all maple trees in a forest.

  • all plants in a forest.

  • all animals in a forest.

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In which of the following relationships is neither species harmed?

  • Predation

  • Parasitism

  • Competition

  • Commensalism

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Which of the following would most likely cause a large number of density-independent deaths in a population?

  • winter storms

  • predators

  • disease-carrying insects

  • limited resources

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During Stage 2 of a population’s demographic transition, the death rate

  • increases.

  • remains the same.

  • decreases.

  • is zero.

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The number of wild horses per square kilometer in a prairie is the horse populations

  • density.

  • size.

  • dispersion.

  • birth rate.

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Which of the following is one of the main properties used to describe a population?

  • number of individuals

  • number of species

  • color of individuals

  • kind of adaptations

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The level of biodiversity that involves a variety of habits and communities is

  • ecosystem diversity.

  • population diversity.

  • genetic diversity.

  • species diversity.

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Competition for food and communities iscannot occur

  • between two populations.

  • among members of the same population.

  • among populations whose niches overlap.

  • between animals from two different ecosystems.

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The difference between a predator and a parasite is that a predator

  • usually kills and eats its prey.

  • lives in or on a host.

  • benefits from another organism.

  • harms another organism.

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Professionals who study and make predictions about human populations are called

  • stenographers.

  • geologists.

  • demographers.

  • populists.

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Which of the following organisms has the highest reproductive potential?

  • dogs

  • bacteria

  • elephants

  • humans

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Thick fur on deer is reproductive potential?not an example of coevolution. Why?

  • because thick fur is an adaptation

  • because deer with thick fur live longer

  • because thick fur evolved in response to a cold climate, not in response to other organisms

  • because in the lowlands, where the climate was sunny and warm, deer that did not have thick fur became separated from other deer that did have thick fur

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Which factor contributed most to the exponential growth of the human population?

  • more food, better hygiene

  • higher fertility rates

  • higher birth rates

  • increased immigration

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Each of the following is an example of a parasite the human population?except

  • a roundworm in a human’s intestine.

  • a tick on a cat.

  • a cow in a pasture.

  • mistletoe on a tree.

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Educating women worldwide has lowered birthrates partly because

  • educated women need to bear many children to ensure that some will survive.

  • educated women may learn family-planning techniques.

  • educated women contribute less to their family income.

  • All of the above

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Human population growth was most rapid during which period of human history?

  • Ice Ages

  • Bronze and Iron Ages

  • Stone Ages

  • Modern Age

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Because birth rates have begun to fall, Earth’s population will

  • soon stabilize at the level it is today—about 6 billion.

  • begin to decrease until it reaches 5 billion.

  • increase for a short time and then decrease to current levels.

  • stabilize somewhere around 9 billion by 2050.

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During the _____ period(s), humans altered their habitats. will

  • hunter-gatherer

  • Industrial Revolution

  • agricultural revolution d.

  • All of the above

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Which of the following makes it difficult to reduce population growth?

  • High literacy rates result in women wanting to have more children.

  • Population sizes will not decline until some people start having to do without food and other necessities of life.

  • Many people live in cities, where large families are an advantage.

  • Many people have low literacy and limited access to healthcare.

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Scientists predict population sizes by using population growth?

  • survivorship, migration, life expectancy, and replacement structure.

  • age structure, fertility rate, and migration.

  • replacement rate, fertility rate, age rates, and survivorship.

  • age structure, survivorship, fertility rate, and migration.

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World population growth will eventually stop when population growth?

  • the population reaches 9 billion.

  • most countries have replacement-level fertility rates.

  • most countries have higher death rates.

  • the worldwide infant mortality rate increases.

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An endangered species is population growth?

  • a species in danger of extinction.

  • a species growing on public land.

  • an organism brought to a place where it has not lived before.

  • a species that has disappeared entirely.

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Which of the following would population growth?not be illegal under the Endangered Species Act?

  • capturing a wild animal listed as a threatened species for exhibition in a zoo, provided the animal is well cared for

  • digging up an endangered plant in a public park and selling it

  • destroying the habitat of an endangered plant during the building of a federal highway

  • having a permit to capture and conduct research with endangered species

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How many species are estimated to be living on Earth? population growth?

  • between 10,000 and 100,000

  • between 1 and 2 million

  • between 500,000 and 1 million

  • between 10 and 50 million

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Which of the following is a reason that wood is considered a limited resource in many developing countries?

  • Wood is used in place of money to buy food.

  • Fuelwood allows people to purify their water by boiling it.

  • Excess wood is used to construct shantytowns.

  • People cut down trees faster than they can grow.

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In what part of the world are the greatest number of extinctions occurring?

  • in tropical rain forests

  • in the Arctic

  • in deserts

  • in Europe and the United States

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The current rate of species extinction is extinctions occurring?

  • slower than at any other time in this century.

  • attributable to the actions of humans.

  • the result of natural environmental processes.

  • of little consequence to Earth’s long-term survival.

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The fact that organisms are adapted to survive in particular environments helps to explain why

  • captive-breeding programs are often ineffective.

  • non-native plant species never flourish in new areas.

  • habitat destruction accounts for most extinctions.

  • compromise is impossible on environmental issues.

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What groups of organisms are most in danger of extinction? environments helps to explain why

  • with small populations

  • those that migrate or need special habitats

  • those with large populations that breed quickly

  • Both (a) and (b)

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Where are many critical biodiversity hotspots located? environments helps to explain why

  • cities and developed areas of the world

  • islands, tropical rain forests, and coastal areas

  • desert and polar environments

  • All of the above

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The major human causes of extinction today are environments helps to explain why

  • hunting and destroying habitats.

  • polluting and introducing non-native species.

  • Both

  • Neither

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Using scientific information from chemistry and biology to devise a plan to clean up a lake and make it healthy again describes

  • ecology.

  • earth science.

  • environmental science.

  • social science.

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The “Tragedy of the Commons” describes the conflict between

  • developing and developed nations.

  • individuals and society.

  • farmers and industrialized society.

  • Canada and Mexico.

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A sustainable world would be characterized by the between

  • preservation of rare animals by relocation from natural habitats to laboratories.

  • invention of safer storage facilities for increased amounts of toxic wastes.

  • maximum exploitation of natural resources using more advanced technologies.

  • indefinite existence of human populations in a healthy and prosperous condition.

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An ecological footprint is the between

  • mark a person’s shoe makes in soft earth.

  • number of animals a person has killed.

  • amount of land and ocean area needed to support one person.

  • number of trees people cut down.

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A resident of _____ is likely to leave the largest ecological footprint.

  • Indonesia

  • the United States

  • Britain

  • India

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The classification and collection of data that are in the form of numbers is called

  • statistics.

  • distribution.

  • probability.

  • mean.

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Your county is considering buying land to form a nature preserve. On this land, an endangered species of bird is known to breed. Which of the following is a possible negative short-term consequence to the county making this decision?

  • The population of the endangered species increases.

  • Habitat destruction is immediately decreased.

  • Environmental controls are made less strict outside the preserve area.

  • Habitats outside the preserve area become damaged by overdevelopment.

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The group that does not receive the experimental treatment in an experiment is the

  • control group.

  • data.

  • experimental group.

  • variable.

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By examining _____, scientists can test predictions for situations in which it is impossible or unethical to use experiments.

  • correlations

  • control groups

  • observations

  • variables

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What essential characteristic does a good experiment have? situations in which it is impossible or unethical to use experiments.

  • A control group is given the experimental treatment.

  • More than one variable is tested.

  • A control is used.

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How did the Himalaya Mountains form? situations in which it is impossible or unethical to use experiments.

  • erosion

  • glacial movements

  • convection

  • colliding tectonic plates

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Before you can make a decision using a decision-making model, what step must you take?

  • Explore the consequences of each option.

  • Consider which values apply to the issue.

  • Gather information.

  • All of the above

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What step in a simple environmental decision-making model are you taking when you consider whether or not people will benefit financially from setting aside land as a national park?

  • exploring consequences

  • gathering information

  • making a decision

  • None of the above

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When making a decision about whether or not to build a dam, you are considering an economic value when you ask which of the following questions?

  • Will the dam provide new leisure activities?

  • How many jobs will building the dam generate?

  • Will building the dam destroy natural resources?

  • Is it right to build a dam here?

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Which of the following includes all of the water on or near Earth’s surface?

  • geosphere

  • atmosphere

  • hydrosphere

  • lithosphere

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What are wind and water erosion Earth’s surface?not likely to affect?

  • mountains

  • tides

  • rocks

  • soil

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Which of the following is the most geologically active region on the surface of Earth?

  • glacial valleys

  • boundaries between tectonic plates

  • mountain peaks

  • recharge zones

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The ozone layer is located in the region on the surface of Earth?

  • stratosphere.

  • thermosphere.

  • ionosphere.

  • troposphere.

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What is the estimated temperature of Earth’s inner core? region on the surface of Earth?

  • 3,000ºC to 4,000ºC

  • 400ºC to 500ºC

  • 4,000ºC to 5,000ºC

  • 300ºC to 400ºC

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In the troposphere, which of the following decreases as altitude increases?

  • temperature

  • pressure

  • radiation

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Which of the following is altitude increases?not a mechanism of energy transfer through or within Earth’s atmosphere?

  • radiation

  • conduction

  • condensation

  • convection

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Without the greenhouse effect, Earth’s atmosphere would be _____ to support life.

  • too hot

  • too wet

  • too cold

  • lacking the oxygen

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When you ask the question, “If a marsh is included as part of a nature preserve, will it protect our water resources?” you are considering which of the following types of values?

  • aesthetic

  • environmental

  • educational

  • social/cultural

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Which of the following is of a nature preserve, will it protect our water resources?” you are considering which of the following types of values?not an algae that uses energy from the sun to make food?

  • seaweed

  • giant kelp

  • phytoplankton

  • gymnosperm

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The average mass of a wolf in a pack of wolves is an example of

  • mean.

  • sample size.

  • distribution.

  • statistical population.

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Ocean water _____ than fresh water. of

  • freezes at a higher temperature

  • supports fewer fish

  • contains more salts

  • is less abundant

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Deep currents flow along the of

  • ocean floor.

  • thermocline.

  • ocean surface.

  • halocline.

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Surface currents circulate in different directions, depending on the _____ in which they occur.

  • hemisphere

  • hydrosphere

  • troposphere

  • biosphere

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Which of the following is the layer of the ocean extending from the base of the thermocline to the bottom of the ocean?

  • surface layer

  • deep zone

  • thermocline

  • bottom zone

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The community of a pond is made up of all the from the base of the thermocline to the bottom of the ocean?

  • abiotic factors in the water.

  • resources organisms need.

  • habitats in and around the water.

  • populations of fish, insects, and other living organisms.

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With respect to energy, Earth is a(n) from the base of the thermocline to the bottom of the ocean?

  • unstable system.

  • open system.

  • stationary system.

  • closed system.

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What part of Earth encompasses all areas where organisms can obtain the energy they need?

  • biosphere

  • atmosphere

  • hydrosphere

  • lithosphere

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With respect to matter, Earth is mostly obtain the energy they need?

  • an open system.

  • an ecosystem.

  • a closed system.

  • a biosphere.

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The organisms most likely to belong to the same species are obtain the energy they need?

  • people at a football game.

  • birds in a forest.

  • bacteria inside a person’s body.

  • organisms in a pond.

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An organism is resistant to a chemical if it obtain the energy they need?

  • has a gene that protects it from the chemical.

  • has been exposed to a small amount of the chemical over time.

  • did not eat anything with the chemical on it.

  • All of the above

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In order for evolution to occur in a population, individuals with a trait that is “naturally selected for” must

  • live a long time.

  • reproduce.

  • leave the area.

  • coevolve.

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Which of the following converts nitrogen in the air into a form plants can use?

  • bacteria

  • protists

  • fungi

  • animals

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In the _____ zone, the water is cool and dark. form plants can use?

  • benthic

  • littoral

  • eutrophic

  • plankton

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What mainly distinguishes nekton from benthos? form plants can use?

  • One lives in a freshwater ecosystem and the other lives in salty water.

  • One swims freely and the other often lives attached to a hard surface.

  • One is a predator and the other is a primary producer.

  • All of the above

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Estuaries form plants can use?

  • are always saltwater ecosystems.

  • are always freshwater ecosystems.

  • are ecosystems where both fresh water and salt water are present.

  • prevent the development of salt marshes.

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Which organism produces most of the food in an aquatic ecosystem?

  • fish

  • phytoplankton

  • barnacles

  • zooplankton

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Why doesn’t photosynthesis occur in deep ocean water? ecosystem?

  • The water temperature is too cold.

  • There is no sunlight.

  • There are not enough nutrients.

  • The salinity level of the water is too high.

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Which ecosystem has the highest level of salinity? ecosystem?

  • salt marsh

  • river

  • brackish marsh

  • pond

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What are the two main types of freshwater wetlands? ecosystem?

  • lakes and ponds

  • littoral zones and benthic zones

  • rivers and streams

  • marshes and swamps

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All of the following are characteristics of temperate rain forests except

  • high humidity and moderate temperatures.

  • abundant mosses, ferns, and lichens.

  • low rainfall in summer but abundant snow in winter.

  • large evergreen trees, such as Sitka spruce and Douglas fir.

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Most scientists classify organisms into forests

  • five kingdoms.

  • three kingdoms.

  • six kingdoms.

  • two groups.

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The energy in most ecosystems comes from forests

  • green plants.

  • wind.

  • the sun.

  • All of the above

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Which of the following animals is successful because it moves quickly, reproduces rapidly, and has a waterproof external skeleton?

  • ant

  • bird

  • mouse

  • squirrel

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Which kind of organism obtains energy only from producers? moves quickly, reproduces rapidly, and has a waterproof external skeleton?

  • decomposers

  • omnivores

  • herbivores

  • All of the above

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Which of the following describes soil and temperature in an ecosystem?

  • abiotic factors

  • unnecessary factors

  • biotic factors

  • selection factors

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Which of the following best describes a population? ecosystem?

  • members of the same species living in the same place at the same time

  • all the red birds in an area

  • all types of organisms living in the same place

  • all members of the same species

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Which of the following plants is likely to be a pioneer species?

  • lichen

  • shrub

  • grass

  • oak tree

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What kind of natural disaster helps some forest communities by allowing some trees to release their seeds, by clearing away deadwood, and by encouraging new growth?

  • fire

  • windstorm

  • flood

  • drought

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Which of the following is by allowing some trees to release their seeds, by clearing away deadwood, and by encouraging new growth?not true about temperate deciduous forests?

  • Trees grow lush green leaves in the spring, but lose their leaves in late summer.

  • The soil is rich, and plants cover much of the forest floor.

  • Animals such as squirrels, bears, and deer find food in the form of nuts, berries, and leaves.

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Where would an ecologist be least likely to go to study primary succession?

  • a new island formed by a volcanic eruption

  • a gravel-filled valley that had been covered by a glacier until recently

  • a locked, abandoned asphalt parking lot in New York City

  • the Amazon Rain Forest

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Plants play a crucial role in the carbon cycle because they primary succession?

  • do not release carbon dioxide during cellular respiration.

  • allow carbon to enter an ecosystem through photosynthesis.

  • have special bacteria that live in their root systems.

  • are chemically converted into fossil fuels when burned.

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What type of succession occurs after a natural process such as a volcanic eruption or flood?

  • primary succession

  • old-field succession

  • secondary succession

  • climax community

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Which organism is likely to be in the bottom trophic level of a food chain?

  • leopard seal

  • krill

  • algae

  • killer whale

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If you visited a savanna, you would likely see of a food chain?

  • large herds of grazing animals, such as rhinos, gazelles, and giraffes.

  • a dense forest.

  • snow and ice.

  • a coastal ecosystem.

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The tundra of a food chain?

  • has a layer of soil that is permanently frozen beneath the top soil.

  • is too cold to support insect life.

  • is resistant to environmental damage because it is usually frozen.

  • All of the above

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Taiga is of a food chain?

  • a cold, treeless, desert-like biome found near the North and South Poles.

  • found mostly in Africa.

  • a forest biome dominated by coniferous trees, such as pine, fir, and spruce.

  • a dry, rocky biome found in the central part of South America.

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Biomes of a food chain?

  • contain two ecosystems, hence the name “biome.”

  • are usually described by their vegetation.

  • exist in limited regions of the world.

  • All of the above

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As you travel from the North Pole toward the equator, you would expect to see

  • tropical rain forests, then deserts, then taiga.

  • temperate deciduous forests, then taiga, then tropical rain forests.

  • tundra, then grasslands, then tropical rain forests.

  • taiga, then desert, then tundra.

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Which of the following would you expect to see in the emergent layer of a tropical rain forest?

  • grasses, insects, and small succulents

  • eagles, bats, and snakes

  • lichens, mosses, and dwarf woody plants

  • epiphytes, small burrowing mammals, and burrowing toads

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The distance north or south of the equator, as measured in degrees, is called

  • altitude.

  • longitude.

  • latitude.

  • magnitude.

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Which of the following is located primarily in coastal areas that have Mediterranean-style climates with warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters?

  • tallgrass prairie

  • tundra

  • savanna

  • chaparral

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In the _____ zone, life is diverse and abundant. that have Mediterranean-style climates with warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters?

  • benthic

  • littoral

  • eutrophic

  • plankton