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Chapter Sixteen - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter Sixteen. Psychological Disorders. CHAPTER 16 PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS. Schizophrenia. Hallucinations Delusions Positive symptoms Negative symptoms. Figure 16.2 Outcomes of Schizophrenia Takes Several Forms. Schizophrenia. Genetics of Schizophrenia Concordance rates

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slide1

Chapter Sixteen

Psychological Disorders

schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
  • Hallucinations
  • Delusions
  • Positive symptoms
  • Negative symptoms
schizophrenia1
Schizophrenia
  • Genetics of Schizophrenia
    • Concordance rates
    • Genetic marker
    • Saccades
  • Environmental Contributions to Schizophrenia
    • Urban environment
      • Poverty, poor nutrition, and stress related to racism
    • Prenatal environment
    • Maternal exposure to famine or viral infection
schizophrenia2
Schizophrenia
  • Brain Structure and Function in Schizophrenia
    • Enlarged ventricles
    • Hippocampus organization
    • Hypofrontality
    • Adolescent loss of gray matter
  • Biochemistry of Schizophrenia
    • Dopamine hypothesis
    • Glutamate
slide10
Figure 16.6 Cell Arrangements in the Hippocampus Appear to be Disorganized in Cases of Schizophrenia
schizophrenia3
Schizophrenia
  • Treatments of Schizophrenia
    • Phenothiazines
      • Tardive dyskinesia
      • Newer antipsychotic drugs
    • Psychosocial rehabilitation
slide15
Figure 16.10 The Introduction of Typical Antipsychotic Medications Reduced the Number of Institutionalized Patients
slide16
Figure 16.11 Tardive Dyskinesia Can Occur as a Side Effect of Treatment with Typical Antipsychotic Medications
mood disorders
Mood Disorders
  • Major Depressive Disorder
    • Genetics of Depression
      • Moderate role – heritability 33%
    • Environmental Factors and Depression
      • “Dutch Hunger Winter”
      • Significant stressors
    • Brain Structure and Function of MDD
      • Reduced volumes in the hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex
      • Sleep patterns reflect circadian rhythm disturbances
slide20
Figure 16.15 The Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis Plays an Important Role in Stress and Depression
mood disorders1
Mood Disorders
  • Major Depressive Disorder
    • Biochemistry of Depression
      • Monoamine activity and serotonin activity
      • Cortisol level
    • Treatment of Depression
      • 30-35 % treated with SSRIs show complete remission
      • Electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT)
mood disorders2
Mood Disorders
  • Bipolar Disorder
    • Causes of Bipolar Disorder
      • Genes play significant role
      • Dietary influence
    • Brain Structure and Function in Bipolar Disorder
      • Hippocampal volume
      • Enlargement of amygdala
    • Biochemistry and Treatment of Bipolar Disorder
      • Lithium
anxiety disorders
Anxiety Disorders
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
    • Intrusive Thoughts and Repetitive Behaviors
      • Germs and disease, fear for safety, moral concerns
      • Hand washing, checking, counting, touching
    • Causes
      • 63-87% concordance rates
      • Abnormalities in circuits connecting thalamus, basal ganglia, and orbitofrontal cortex
    • Treatments
      • Antidepressant medications and SSRIs
      • Deep brain stimulation
anxiety disorders1
Anxiety Disorders
  • Panic Disorder
    • Strong sympathetic arousal
    • Repeated panic attacks
    • Role of sodium lactate
anxiety disorders2
Anxiety Disorders
  • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
    • “Shell shock” or “battle fatigue”
    • Triggered by explores to combat, natural disasters, accidents, assaults, and abuse
    • Hippocampus
    • Decrease in benzodiazepine receptor binding in frontal cortex
autism
Autism
  • Deficits in behavioral domains, communications, and social relatedness
  • Causes of Autism
    • Strong genetic role (90 % concordance)
    • Multiple environmental factors
  • Brain Structures and Function in Autism
    • Abnormal acceleration then deceleration in growth
    • Minicolumns
    • Cerebellum and amygdala
    • Mirror neurons
autism1
Autism
  • Biochemistry and Treatment of Autism
    • Serotonin
    • GABA
    • Glutamate
    • Excess peptides from gluten and casein
    • Treated with intensive, early childhood learning experiences
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Genetics of ADHD
    • Significant role – 80 % concordance rate
  • Brain Structures and Function in ADHD
    • Prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia
  • Biochemistry and Treatment of ADHD
    • Stimulant medication
    • Behavioral therapy
antisocial personality disorder
Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • “Pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others”
  • Genetics of Antisocial Personality Disorder
    • MAOA gene
    • Twin studies
  • Brain Structure and Function Antisocial Personality Disorder
    • Limbic structures
    • Damage to orbitofrontal cortex
antisocial personality disorder1
Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Treatment of Antisocial Personality Disorder
    • Complicated by classification procedure
    • Learning models
      • Anger control
      • Social skills
      • Moral reasoning