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Humor, Translation, and Bilingual Issues. by Don L. F. Nilsen and Alleen Pace Nilsen. Problems in Translating Jokes.

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Humor, Translation, and Bilingual Issues

by Don L. F. Nilsen

and Alleen Pace Nilsen

28


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Problems in Translating Jokes

  • “Before the joke can be discharged in all its swiftness there is much to be apprehended about cultural and social facts, about shared beliefs and attitudes, about pragmatic bases of communication.”

  • “We share our humour with those who have shared our history and who understand our ways of interpreting the experience. There is a fund of common knowledge and recollection, upon which all jokes draw with instantaneous effect.”

  • (Nash [1985]: 9)

  • (Chiaro [2008]: 585)

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Translation in Quentin Tarantino’s Pulp Fiction

  • VINCENT: You know what they call a Quarter Pounder with cheese in Paris?

  • JULES: They don’t call it a Quarter Pounder with cheese?

  • VINCENT: No man; they’ve got the metric system; they don’t know what the fuck a Quarter Pounder is!

  • JULES: So what do they call a Quarter Pounder with cheese?

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  • VINCENT: They call it a Royale with cheese.

  • JULES: Royale with cheese.

  • VINCENT: That’s right.

  • JULES: What do they call a Big Mac?

  • VINCENT: A Big Mac’s a Big Mac only they call it Le Big Mac

  • JULES: Le Big Mac. What do they call a Whopper?

  • VINCENT: I don’t know. I never went to a Burger King. You know what they put on French Fries instead of Ketchup?

  • JULES: What?

  • VINCENT: Mayonnaise.

  • (Chiaro [2008]: 586)

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A Riddle

  • If you are Swedish, you stroke it.

  • If you are Spanish you beat it.

  • If you are German, you cover it in food.

  • If you are British, you use it as an excuse not to have sex. What is it?

  • A Personal Computer.

  • NOTE: PCs in Spain often suffer violence, with 57 percent of owners admitting to hitting them. Germans are unamused by PCs; only one in six has enjoyed a laugh with their PC.

  • (Davis [2008]: 561)

  • 28


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    Untranslatable Canadian Joke

    • “Je suis allé dans un magazin ‘Newfie’ et j’ai demandé un robe de chambre.

    • Le ‘Newfie’ m’a demandé: “Quelle grandeur la chambre?”

    • (Davies [2008]: 163)

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    FRENCH

    • What has fifty legs and cannot walk?

    • Half a centipede. (Laurian & Nilsen 6)

    • TRANSLATION:

    • Qu’est-ce qui a cinq cent pattes et qui ne peut pas marcher?

    • La moitié d’une mille-pattes

    • NOTE: A French centipede is a “mille-pattes” (thousand-feet) (Chiaro [2008]: 575-576)

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    Formal Equivalence vs. Connotative Equivalence

    • Werner Koller would say that translating the English “centipede” into the French “mille-pattes” is apt in terms of reference, but becomes inept when the English and French words are analyzed because “mille-pattes” is more hyperbolic than is “centipede.”

    • (Chiaro [2008]: 576)

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    An English Sick Joke in France

    • “Mummy, Mummy, is it still a long way to France?”

    • “Shut up and keep swimming!”

    • “Maman, Maman, est-ce que l’Angleterre loin?”

    • “Tais-toi et continue à nager!”

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    Discussion

    • Notice that in the translation, “England” is substituted for “France.”

    • As one of Delia Chiaro’s French colleagues pointed out to her, “Why would someone French want to go to England?”

    • (Chiaro [2008]: 587)

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    German Humor

    • Between 1931 and 1936 The Jack Pearl Show was on radio. Baron von Munchausen was the central figure in a running skit.

    • The Baron spoke with a strong German accent that contrastted with the ordinary language of Charlie (Sharlie).

    • (Nilsen & Nilsen 102)

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    Irish and Jewish Humor

    • “Since Irish humor developed out of the oral tradition (the telling of jokes and stories in Irish pubs), it is very epiphinal in nature.”

    • “Like Jewish humor, Irish humor developed out of pain and tragedy that resulted in a diaspora.”

    • (Nilsen Humor in Irish Literature xv)

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    • “Irish humor, like Jewish humor, contains much wordplay, and like Jewish humor, much of Irish wordplay is bilingual and/or bicultural, relating to both the Gaelic/Celtic and to the English language and culture.”

    • Many Irish, like many Jews, “are trying to reestablish their roots, and it is the humor in Irish written and oral literature that is helping them to do so.”

    • (Nilsen Humor in Irish Literature xv)

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    Italian Humor and like Jewish humor, much of Irish wordplay is bilingual and/or bicultural, relating to both the Gaelic/Celtic and to the English language and culture.”

    • In the late 1970s, comedian Don Novello spoke with an Italian accent and dressed in clerical garb when doing comedy skits about Farther Guido Sarducci.

    • He was a hit on Saturday Night Live and on The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, but when he went to the Vatican to pose for publicity photos he was arrested for impersonating a priest.

    • (Nilsen & Nilsen 115)

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    An Irish Joke in Italy and like Jewish humor, much of Irish wordplay is bilingual and/or bicultural, relating to both the Gaelic/Celtic and to the English language and culture.”

    • What do they write on the bottom of Guinness bottles in Ireland?

    • Open at other end.

    • TRANSLATION:

    • Che cosa scrivono sul fondo delle lattine di Coca Cola che si trovano nei distributori di bibite nelle caserme dei carabinieri?

    • Aprire dall’altro lato.

    • (Chiaro [2008]: 583)

    28


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    Discussion and like Jewish humor, much of Irish wordplay is bilingual and/or bicultural, relating to both the Gaelic/Celtic and to the English language and culture.”

    • The Irish are the butt of English stupidity jokes, so a different stupidity group needs to be used in Italian.

    • In Italy, the stupidity group is not ethnic, but is professional—the carabinieri (one of Italy’s police forces).

    • There is no national drink in Italy.

    • Furthermore, Italians consume alcohol usually at meals and from glasses, not bottles.

    • So “Coca Cola” is used instead of Guinness.

    • Finally, Italians see a bottle as having a top and a bottom, so “bottle” had to change to “can.”

    • (Chiaro [2008]: 583)

    28


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    Now reread the joke and the translation! and like Jewish humor, much of Irish wordplay is bilingual and/or bicultural, relating to both the Gaelic/Celtic and to the English language and culture.”

    • What do they write on the bottom of Guinness bottles in Ireland?

    • Open at other end.

    • TRANSLATION:

    • Che cosa scrivono sul fondo delle lattine di Coca Cola che si trovano nei distributori di bibite nelle caserme dei carabinieri?

    • Aprire dall’altro lato.

    • (Chiaro [2008]: 583)

    28


    Italian l.jpg
    ITALIAN and like Jewish humor, much of Irish wordplay is bilingual and/or bicultural, relating to both the Gaelic/Celtic and to the English language and culture.”

    • What’s black and white and red all over?

    • A newspaper.

    • TRANSLATION:

    • Che cosa è nero, bianco e rossa ovunque?

    • A. L’Unità, or (a Communist newspaper)

    • B. Una zebra con l’abronzatura (a zebra with a sunburn)

    • NOTE: The first “red” retains the “read” association, while the second “red” does not.

    • (Chiaro [2008]: 580)

    28


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    • Neither of these translations encapsulate the semantic ambivalency attached to the words “red/read.” “Nevertheless, solution A does capture the ‘read’ element of the original riddle coupled with the metaphorical value of the colour term ‘red’ attached to a popular left wing newspaper L’Unità.”

    • Since this is a children’s riddle, the first answer is inappropriate because children wouldn’t know about L’Unità.

    • Furthermore the second answer has the kind of silliness that would be found in a children’s riddle.

    • (Chiaro [2008]: 580)

    28


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    JAPANESE ambivalency attached to the words “red/read.” “Nevertheless, solution A does capture the ‘read’ element of the original riddle coupled with the metaphorical value of the colour term ‘red’ attached to a popular left wing newspaper

    • JACOB MEY: Is there a toilet around here?

    • ATTENDANT: You want to use?

    • JACOB MEY: (somewhat astonished): Sure I do.

    • ATTENDANT: Go down the steps.

    • NOTE: In Japan there are Western toilets and Japanese toilets. There are also male toilets and female toilets

    • (Mey 264-265)

    28


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    NATIVE AMERICANS ambivalency attached to the words “red/read.” “Nevertheless, solution A does capture the ‘read’ element of the original riddle coupled with the metaphorical value of the colour term ‘red’ attached to a popular left wing newspaper

    • In American conversations, when the speaker is ready to relinquish the floor, he usually waits about one and a half seconds.

    • In Athabaskan conversations, silence is used to organize thoughts and develop effective sentence structure.

    28


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    28


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    Polish Jokes in America Athabaskan never gets the floor.

    • Do you know why they don’t give Poles a coffee break?

    • It takes too long to retrain them.

    • What is stamped at the bottom of Coca Cola bottles in Poland?

    • Please open at the other end.

    • (Dundes (1987): 135)

    28


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    Russian Humor Athabaskan never gets the floor.

    • Russian immigrant yakov Smirnoff entertained Americans through the cold war and beyond with such jokes as,

    • “I have a Russian Express Card. It says, ‘Don’t Leave Home!’” and

    • “One of the biggest differences between America and Russia is that in America you can always find a party, but in Russia, the party always finds you.”

    • (Nilsen & Nilsen 115)

    28


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    28


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    Scandinavian Humor possibly executed because they published Stalin’s name as “Sralin,” which in Cyrillic means “shit.”

    • Garrison Keillor exploits Scandinavian stereotypes in his “Lake Wobegon.”

    • “Swedish flu is the usual flu with chills, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, and achiness…, but it’s accompanied by on overpowering urge to put things in order.” (Nilsen & Nilsen 116)

    28


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    !Scottish Humor possibly executed because they published Stalin’s name as “Sralin,” which in Cyrillic means “shit.”

    • What’s the difference between a poor Scotsman, a rich Scotsman, and an old Scotsman?

    • A poor Scotsman has a can o pee under his bed.

    • A rich scotsman has a canopy over the bed.

    • And an old Scotsman can na’ pee at all.

    • (A Sandra Nagy Joke)

    28


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    !BILINGUAL HUMOR WEB SITES possibly executed because they published Stalin’s name as “Sralin,” which in Cyrillic means “shit.”

    INTERNATIONAL AND CROSSCULTURAL HUMOR:

    DANISH HUMOR RESOURCES (JOSEF WEITEMEYER):

    www.humor.dk

    HUMOR IN INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION (WENDY LAWSON):

    www.beyondajoke.co.uk

    INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR HUMOR STUDIES (MARTIN LAMPERT):

    www.humorstudies.org

    INTERNATIONAL STUDIES IN HUMOR RESEARCH (WILLIBALD RUCH):

    http://www.uni-duesseldorf.de/WWW/MathNat/Ruch/SecretaryPage.html

    28


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    !!!Related PowerPoints possibly executed because they published Stalin’s name as “Sralin,” which in Cyrillic means “shit.”

    • African-American Humor

    • Indian Humor

    • Jewish Humor

    • Spanish-American Humor

    28


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    References # 1: possibly executed because they published Stalin’s name as “Sralin,” which in Cyrillic means “shit.”

    Alexieva, Bistra. “There Must be Some System in This Madness: Metaphor, Polysemy, and Wordplay in a Cognitive Linguistics Framework.” in Traductio: Essays on Punning and Translation Ed. Dirk Delabastita. Manchester, England: St. Jerome, 1997.

    Antonini, Rachele. “The Perception of Subtitled Humor in Italy.” in Chiaro (2005): 209-225.

    Ballard, Wordplay and the Didactics of Translation.” in Delabatista (1996): 333-346.

    Bucaria, Chiara. “The Perception of Humour in Dubbing vs. Subtitlilng: The Case of ‘Six Feet Under’” ESP Across Cultures 2 (2006): 36ff.

    Chiaro, Delia, ed. “Humor and Translation.” Special issue of Humor: International Journal of Humor Research 18.2 (2005), 135-234.

    28


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    References # 2: possibly executed because they published Stalin’s name as “Sralin,” which in Cyrillic means “shit.”

    Chiaro, Delia. “The Implications of the Quality of Verbally Expressed Humour and the Success of Screen Comedy.” Antares Umorol-O Nouva Stiinta (2003): 14-20.

    Chiaro, Delia. “Investigating the Perception of Verbally Expressed Humour on Italian TV.” ESP Across Cultures 1 (2004): 35-52.

    Chiaro, Delia. “The Effect of Translation on the Humour Response: The Case of Dubbed Comedy in Italy.” in Translation Studies: Doubts and Directions. Eds. Yves Gambier, Miriam Shlesinger, and Radigundis Stolze. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins, 138-152.

    Chiaro, Delia. “‘Servizio Completo?’ On the (Un)translatability of Puns on Screen.” in La Draduzione Multimediale: Quale Traduzione per Quale Testo? Eds. Rosa Maria Bolettieri Bosinelli, Christine Heiss, Marcello Soffretti, and Silvia Bernardini. Bologna, Italy: CLUEB, 2000.

    Chiaro, Delia. “Verbally Expressed Humor and Translation” in Chiaro (2005): 135-146; also in Raskin (2008) 569-608.

    28


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    References # 3: possibly executed because they published Stalin’s name as “Sralin,” which in Cyrillic means “shit.”

    Davies, Christie. “European Ethnic Scripts and the Translation and Switching of Jokes.” in Chiaro (2005): 147-160.

    Davies, Christie. “Undertaking the Comparative Study of Humor.” in Raskin [2008]: 157-182.

    Davis, Dineh. “Communication and Humor.” in Raskin [2008]: 543-568.

    Delabastita, Dirk. “Cross-Language Comedy in Shakespeare.” in Chiaro (2005): 161-184.

    Delabistita, Dirk. There’s a Double Tongue: An Investigation into the Translation of Shakespeare’s Wordplay, with Special Reference to “Hamlet”. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi, 1993.

    Delabistita, Dirk, ed. Traductio: Essays on Punning and Translation. Manchester, England: St. Jerome/Presses Universitaire de Namur, 1997.

    28


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    References # 4: possibly executed because they published Stalin’s name as “Sralin,” which in Cyrillic means “shit.”

    Delabistita, Dirk, ed. Wordplay and Translation. A Special Issue of The Translator 2.2 (1996).

    Denton, John. “How ‘A Fish Called Wanda’ became Un Pesce di Nome Wanda.” Il Traduttore Nuovo 44 (1994): 29-38.

    Dundes, Alan. Cracking Jokes: Studies of Sick Humor Cycles and Stereotypes. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, 1987.

    Kao, George. Chinese Wit and Humor. New York, NY: Sterling Publishing Company, 1975.

    Laurian, Anne-Marie. “Humour et Traduction au Contact des Cultures.” in Laurian and Nilsen (1989): 5-14.

    Laurian, Anne-Marie, and Don L. F. Nilsen, eds. Humor et Traduction/Humor and Translation a Special Issue of Meta: Journal des Traductors/Journal of Translators 34.1 (1989).

    28


    Slide35 l.jpg

    References # 5: possibly executed because they published Stalin’s name as “Sralin,” which in Cyrillic means “shit.”

    Mateo Martinez-Bartolomé, Marta. La Traducción del Humor: Las Comedias Inglesas en Español. Oviedo, Spain: Universidad de Oviedo, 1995.

    Mey, Jacob L. Pragmatics: An Introduction, 2nd Edition. Oxford, England: Blackwell, 2001.

    Mey, Jacob L. Whose Language? A Study in Linguistic Pragmatics. Amsterdam, Holland: Benjamins, 1985.

    Nash, Walter. The Language of Humour: Style and Technique in Comic Discourse. London, England: Longman, 1985.

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen. Encyclopedia of 20th Century American Humor. Westport, CT: Greenwood/Oryx, 2000.

    28


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    References # 6: possibly executed because they published Stalin’s name as “Sralin,” which in Cyrillic means “shit.”

    Nilsen, Don L. F. Humor in Irish Literature. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1996.

    Pisek, Gernard. “Wordplay and the Dubbing/Subtitler.” Arbeiten aus Anglistik und Amerikanistik 1 (1996): 37-51.

    Raskin, Victor. The Primer of Humor Research. New York, NY: Mouton de Gruyter, 2008.

    Ruch, Willibald, et. al. “Cross-National Comparisons of Humor Categories: France and Germany.” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 4 (1991): 391-414.

    Raskin, Victor, ed. Primer of Humor Research. New York, NY: Mouton de Gruyter, 2008.

    28


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    References # 7: possibly executed because they published Stalin’s name as “Sralin,” which in Cyrillic means “shit.”

    Schmitz, J. R. “Humor as a Pedagogical Tool in Foreign Language and Translation Courses.” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 15.1 (2002).

    Scollon, Ron and Suzie B. K. Scollon. Narrative, Literacy and Face in Interethnic Communication. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1981.

    Vaid, Jyotsna. “New Approaches to Conceptual Representation in Bilingual Memory: The Case for Studying Humor Interpretation.” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 3.1 (2000): 28-30.

    Zabalbeascoa, Patrick. “Humor and Translation—An Interdiscipline.” in Chiaro (2005): 185-208.

    Ziv, Avner. National Styles of Humor. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1988.

    28