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US - Russian Relations. Legacy from Reagan to Bush in foreign policy was improved relations with Soviet Union: collapse gave Bush opportunity to refashion foreign policy Two prior attempts to construct a partnership with SU:

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us russian relations
US - Russian Relations
  • Legacy from Reagan to Bush in foreign policy was improved relations with Soviet Union: collapse gave Bush opportunity to refashion foreign policy
  • Two prior attempts to construct a partnership with SU:
      • post-1945 attempt by FDR to draw Soviets into a liberal-international world order:
      • Nixonian attempt at superpower détente
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US - Russian Relations
  • 1992 election:Clinton argued that Bush had failed on 3 levels:
    • misjudged loyalty to Gorbachev & failure to support Yeltshin early enough
    • more concerned with preserving integrity of SU than in supporting cause of self-determination - betrayal of US principles going back to the Wilsonian tradition
    • question of Aid: Bush too cautious, what was needed was more material support - in US interest
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US - Russian Relations
  • First concern for Clinton presidency: success of the reforms in Russia itself - need for a strategic alliance
    • support of reform process - promote US investment, lay foundations for market economy success
    • help in managing the transition from empire to self-determination: contribution to international stability
    • Russia still possessed a substantial nuclear arsenal: imperative to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons
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US - Russian Relations
  • Issue of world order & US's place in it: Clinton's US neither willing or able to play world policeman
  • Domestic reasons: Clinton sensitive to the fact that a peaceful world was needed for domestic advances
  • Little money actually appeared ($1.6bln) to help the new Russia weakened his credibility & left Russian allies exposed
  • Main thrust of US policy to Russia no different to Bush, fuelled non-Russian suspicion of US motives
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US - Russian Relations
  • US strategy based on assumption that there was an identity of interest between Russia & US on wider issues - taken to task by Yeltsin, Russia not be so compliant
  • NATO expansion - no contradiction between desire to engage with Russia & with to assure Eastern European states that they had a future in NATO
  • Anti-reform vote in Russia in 1993 led to crisis in US - too much shock not enough therapy- criticised by the IMF, administration split between liberals & monetarists - assurance of a Clinton visit to Moscow in Jan. 1994
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US - Russian Relations
  • Incessant criticism of Clinton's policy towards Russia - climax in Strobe Talbott's confirmation hearings as Deputy Sec. of State in in Feb. 94
  • Strategy based on an over-optimistic set of assumptions on Russia's potential to become a stable, capitalist country; not yet ready for partnership; inclined to authoritarianism
  • Change in policy - upgrade in relationship with Ukraine, linked with attempts to draw Russia closer to west - IMF loan of $1.5billion to Russia - support of reform program
  • Invasion of Chechnya in 1994 increased tensions
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US - Russian Relations
  • Clinton’s second term concentrated on question of NATO-Russian relations NATO-Russia Founding Act 1997 superseded by NATO-Russian Council 2002
  • Aim was to work with a new Russia in bringing about the transformation of Europe as a whole
  • United States embarked on a vast aid program to Russia aimed at propping up Yeltsin
  • Criticised as evidence emerged of Russian transfer of ballistic missile technology to both Iran and Iraq
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US - Russian Relations
  • Kosovo episode put US/Russian relations and NATO/Russian relations under enormous strain
  • For both US & Russia in Clinton era there was a view that they be fundamentally co-operative as opposed to a fundamentally competitive
  • Missile defence, Chechnya, Bosnia, NATO, and other disputes were about tools to be used to achieve what ought to have been seen as common goals, not about the goals themselves.
us russian relations9
US - Russian Relations
  • Relationship has been put under renewed strain since Bush presidency:
    • Repudiation of the Anti Ballistic missile treaty
    • Dispute about combating the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction
    • WTO Accession
    • Current crisis over Iraq
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US - Russian Relations
  • U.S. Assistance to Russia – Fiscal Year 2004
  • The $880.38 million budgeted by all U.S. Government agencies programs in Russia is allocated roughly as follows:
  • Democracy Programs $45.43 ml
  • Economic & Social Reform $51.43 ml
  • Security & Law Enforcement $772.14 ml Humanitarian Assistance $5.60 ml
  • Cross Sectoral Initiatives $5.79 ml
  • Down from $1.1 billion in FY 1999
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US - Russian Relations
  • U.S. strategy for assistance to Russia is based on the premise that Russia's transition to a democratic, free-market system will be a long-term process
  • Democratic reform programs are helping Russians develop the building blocks of a democratic society based on the rule of law by providing support to NGOs, independent media, the judiciary
us russian relations12
US - Russian Relations
  • Principal aim is to reduce strategic arsenals. U.S. and Russian missiles no longer targeted at the other’s homeland, and have become strong allies in the global war on terrorism
  • The U.S.-Russia Counterterrorism Working Group (CTWG) provides a framework for cooperation on a wide range of issues including intelligence sharing, aviation security, and terrorist financing
  • Russia shares US’s basic goal of stemming the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them
us russian relations13
US - Russian Relations
  • US is working with Russia to compel Iran to bring its nuclear programs into compliance with IAEA rules.
  • On North Korea, Russia is playing a productive role in organizing and carrying out the six-party talks aimed at the complete, verifiable and irreversible dismantling of North Korea’s nuclear program
  • For US,Russia is an important partner in the Middle East Peace Process "Quartet" (along with the UN and the EU).
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US - Russian Relations
  • NATO-Russia Council established in 2003, has become a major accomplishment in Russia-NATO relations
  • Russia now interacts with NATO members as an equal but without veto power over NATO decisions
  • WTO accession still a major difficulty – Working party on Russia accession in place since 1993 _ US believes that Russia hasn’t adopted to market rules sufficiently enough