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US Foreign Policy. Always a series of debates Internationalists vs. isolationists vs. nationalists Democrats vs. Republicans Debates within political parties Realists vs. Idealists Interventionists vs. Non-interventionists Europe first vs. Asia first. Current US Foreign Policy.

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us foreign policy
US Foreign Policy

Always a series of debates

  • Internationalists vs. isolationists vs. nationalists
  • Democrats vs. Republicans
  • Debates within political parties
  • Realists vs. Idealists
  • Interventionists vs. Non-interventionists
  • Europe first vs. Asia first
current us foreign policy
Current US Foreign Policy

Rooted in some pre-Cold War policies

Still based on some Cold War policies

Some post-Cold War innovations

pre cold war policies
Pre-Cold War Policies
  • Free Market economics
    • Japan and China
  • Spreading Democracy
    • Wilson’s Ideas
  • Nervousness about Commitments:
    • Intervention
    • Participation in international institutions
      • League of Nations
cold war changes some some stay the same
Cold War Changes Some; Some Stay the Same
  • Continuity
  • Free market economics
  • Spreading Democracy
  • New
  • Global Concerns
  • Intervention
  • Multilateralism
  • Deterrence and Forward Presence
from 1945 to present
From 1945 to Present
  • Cold War era and Post-Cold War era
  • Consistency in US Foreign Policy even after Cold War ends
  • Some adjustments to how these policies are implemented
    • Adjustments based on different leader’s strategy for achieving the goals
1 spreading free markets
1. Spreading Free Markets

The Philosophical Element:

  • US belief in free trade and free markets
  • Minimal government intervention in economic life
  • Economic freedom and political freedom
  • Excellence, innovation, progress, political stability
political stability and free trade
Political Stability and Free Trade

Strong political

economy strong stability

through middle

free markets class and failure

economic and of radical

social mobility ideology*


*radical ideologies: communism, radical Islam

free trade
Free Trade
  • WTO: World Trade Organization (Truman to present)
  • IMF: International Monetary Fund (Truman to present)
  • World Bank(Truman to present)
  • NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement (Bush 41 to present)
  • FTAA: Free Trade Area of the Americas (Bush 41 to present)
  • APEC: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (Clinton to present)
the criticism of us economic policies
The Criticism of US Economic Policies
  • US economic policies designed to secure cheap land and cheap labor for US companies
  • Exploitation of natural resources
  • US economic dominance
  • Latin American case
2 building democracy
2. Building Democracy

Cold War

  • Success in W. Europe, Japan
  • Did Democracy really matter?
    • Guatemala, Iran, Chile
    • US alliance with non-democratic states
      • China, Yugoslavia
  • Opportunistic policy
    • S. Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, Haiti
post cold war democracy building
Post-Cold War Democracy Building
  • Clinton Doctrine
    • Criticism of human rights policies of nations
    • Intervention in Bosnia, Somalia, Haiti
  • Bush Doctrine
    • Afghanistan and Iraq Interventions
criticisms of us democracy building
Criticisms of US Democracy Building

US violates other nations’ sovereignty

US ignores democracy and human rights issues when convenient (Saudi Arabia, Pakistan)

US favors trade over democracy and human rights

Limits to US power to transform other nations

3 global concerns
3. Global Concerns
  • Pre-1941: US is a Regional Power
  • Post-1941: Global Power
    • US is concerned about international order in terms of power and values
      • US wants to be the most powerful or one of the most powerful states
      • US wants a major role in ordering the international political and economic situation
cold war era
Anti-Soviet Realism

the problem is Soviet power

The strategy is balancing against Soviet power

Example: Relations with China


the problem is Communist values


Anti-free trade

Human rights violations

Expansionist dictators

Cold War-Era
post cold war globalism
Post-Cold War Globalism
  • Realism
  • Balancing regional powers
  • Eliminating regional powers
  • Weapons proliferation
  • Iran, Iraq, N. Korea
  • Idealism
  • Spreading democracy and free markets
  • Opposing dictatorships (Burma)
4 intervention consistency
4. Intervention: Consistency
  • Direct Military Intervention
    • Korea 1950, Vietnam 1965, Iraq 2003
  • Assistance to Allies
    • Israel, Latin America
  • Willingness to assist in overthrow of governments
    • Iran 1953, Guatemala, Chile, Afghanistan 2001
  • Aid to select foreign political groups (Europe 1950s, Iraq 1990s)
debate when why and how do we intervene
Debate: When, Why, and How Do We Intervene?
  • Korean War
  • Vietnam War
  • Iraq War
5 multilateralism
5. Multilateralism
  • Use international institutions
  • Build alliances
  • UN
  • Treaties
  • Multilateralism, but not always multipolarity
    • Democrats vs. Republicans
6 deterrence and forward presence
6. Deterrence and Forward Presence
  • Atomic/Nuclear Weapons
    • How many do we need?
    • What types of weapons do we want?
    • How should we use them?
forward presence
Forward Presence
  • US Military bases World Wide, 2007
post cold war debates
Post-Cold War Debates
  • Realists: Prevent a new great power from rising
    • Iraq 1990-91
  • Idealists: spread democracy; intervene in humanitarian tragedies
    • Somalia, Bosnia, Haiti, Kosovo
    • Rwanda?
major debates in post cold war
Major Debates in Post-Cold War
  • Hegemony or Multipolarity
  • Intervene for strategic reasons or human rights
    • Somalia and Bosnia
    • Was Iraq about WMD or democracy and human rights
  • The threat of terrorism and radical Islam
obama doctrine
Obama Doctrine?

Free Trade

Spreading Democracy, but not through intervention

Global Concerns, but alliances with friends, partnerships with major states, attempts at engagement with enemies

Selective intervention


Deterrence and forward presence

clinton foreign policy engagement and enlargement en en strategy
Clinton Foreign Policy:Engagement and Enlargement (En-En) Strategy
  • Strengthen Liberal-Democratic Core
  • Transition States/Economies
  • Rogue States
  • Human Rights and Humanitarian Crises
  • Big Emerging Markets (BEM)
  • Arms Proliferation and WMD
  • Multilateralism
sources on clinton doctrine
Sources on Clinton Doctrine
  • A National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement, February 1995
  • A National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement, February 1996
  • A National Security Strategy for a New Century, May 1997
  • A National Security Strategy for a New Century, October 1998
  • A National Security Strategy for a New Century, December 1999
  • A National Security Strategy for a Global Age, December 2000.
  • Speeches by Clinton, Lake, and Albright. September 1993
  • Speeches by Christopher and Albright, November 1993
bush doctrine
Bush Doctrine
  • Choosing Sides
  • Preemption (Preventive War)
  • Linkage of terrorism and WMD
  • Regime Change
  • Multilateralism
  • 1995 Spreading Democracy
    • Bush 43 as an idealist
documents on the bush doctrine
Documents on the Bush Doctrine
  • Bush Administration’s National Security Strategy, September 2002
  • Bush Administration National Security Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction
  • President GW Bush’s West Point Commencement speech, June 2002
  • President GW Bush’s Second Inaugural Address, January 2005
  • President GW Bush’s State of the Union Address,February 2005
  • President GW Bush speech on the war on terrorism October 2005
  • Bush Administration’s, “National Security Strategy of the US,” March 2006