US Foreign Policy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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US Foreign Policy

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  1. US Foreign Policy Always a series of debates • Internationalists vs. isolationists vs. nationalists • Democrats vs. Republicans • Debates within political parties • Realists vs. Idealists • Interventionists vs. Non-interventionists • Europe first vs. Asia first

  2. Current US Foreign Policy Rooted in some pre-Cold War policies Still based on some Cold War policies Some post-Cold War innovations

  3. Pre-Cold War Policies • Free Market economics • Japan and China • Spreading Democracy • Wilson’s Ideas • Nervousness about Commitments: • Intervention • Participation in international institutions • League of Nations

  4. Cold War Changes Some; Some Stay the Same • Continuity • Free market economics • Spreading Democracy • New • Global Concerns • Intervention • Multilateralism • Deterrence and Forward Presence

  5. From 1945 to Present • Cold War era and Post-Cold War era • Consistency in US Foreign Policy even after Cold War ends • Some adjustments to how these policies are implemented • Adjustments based on different leader’s strategy for achieving the goals

  6. Examination of each element Cold War and Post-Cold War

  7. 1. Spreading Free Markets The Philosophical Element: • US belief in free trade and free markets • Minimal government intervention in economic life • Economic freedom and political freedom • Excellence, innovation, progress, political stability

  8. Political Stability and Free Trade Strong political economy strong stability through middle free markets class and failure economic and of radical social mobility ideology* peace *radical ideologies: communism, radical Islam

  9. Free Trade • WTO: World Trade Organization (Truman to present) • IMF: International Monetary Fund (Truman to present) • World Bank(Truman to present) • NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement (Bush 41 to present) • FTAA: Free Trade Area of the Americas (Bush 41 to present) • APEC: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (Clinton to present)

  10. The Criticism of US Economic Policies • US economic policies designed to secure cheap land and cheap labor for US companies • Exploitation of natural resources • US economic dominance • Latin American case

  11. 2. Building Democracy Cold War • Success in W. Europe, Japan • Did Democracy really matter? • Guatemala, Iran, Chile • US alliance with non-democratic states • China, Yugoslavia • Opportunistic policy • S. Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, Haiti

  12. Post-Cold War Democracy Building • Clinton Doctrine • Criticism of human rights policies of nations • Intervention in Bosnia, Somalia, Haiti • Bush Doctrine • Afghanistan and Iraq Interventions

  13. Criticisms of US Democracy Building US violates other nations’ sovereignty US ignores democracy and human rights issues when convenient (Saudi Arabia, Pakistan) US favors trade over democracy and human rights Limits to US power to transform other nations

  14. 3. Global Concerns • Pre-1941: US is a Regional Power • Post-1941: Global Power • US is concerned about international order in terms of power and values • US wants to be the most powerful or one of the most powerful states • US wants a major role in ordering the international political and economic situation

  15. Anti-Soviet Realism the problem is Soviet power The strategy is balancing against Soviet power Example: Relations with China Anti-CommunistIdealism the problem is Communist values Anti-democratic Anti-free trade Human rights violations Expansionist dictators Cold War-Era

  16. Post-Cold War Globalism • Realism • Balancing regional powers • Eliminating regional powers • Weapons proliferation • Iran, Iraq, N. Korea • Idealism • Spreading democracy and free markets • Opposing dictatorships (Burma)

  17. 4. Intervention: Consistency • Direct Military Intervention • Korea 1950, Vietnam 1965, Iraq 2003 • Assistance to Allies • Israel, Latin America • Willingness to assist in overthrow of governments • Iran 1953, Guatemala, Chile, Afghanistan 2001 • Aid to select foreign political groups (Europe 1950s, Iraq 1990s)

  18. Debate: When, Why, and How Do We Intervene? • Korean War • Vietnam War • Iraq War

  19. 5. Multilateralism • Use international institutions • Build alliances • UN • Treaties • Multilateralism, but not always multipolarity • Democrats vs. Republicans

  20. 6. Deterrence and Forward Presence • Atomic/Nuclear Weapons • How many do we need? • What types of weapons do we want? • How should we use them?

  21. Forward Presence • US Military bases World Wide, 2007

  22. Post-Cold War Debates • Realists: Prevent a new great power from rising • Iraq 1990-91 • Idealists: spread democracy; intervene in humanitarian tragedies • Somalia, Bosnia, Haiti, Kosovo • Rwanda?

  23. Major Debates in Post-Cold War • Hegemony or Multipolarity • Intervene for strategic reasons or human rights • Somalia and Bosnia • Was Iraq about WMD or democracy and human rights • The threat of terrorism and radical Islam

  24. Obama Doctrine? Free Trade Spreading Democracy, but not through intervention Global Concerns, but alliances with friends, partnerships with major states, attempts at engagement with enemies Selective intervention Multilateralism Deterrence and forward presence

  25. Clinton Foreign Policy:Engagement and Enlargement (En-En) Strategy • Strengthen Liberal-Democratic Core • Transition States/Economies • Rogue States • Human Rights and Humanitarian Crises • Big Emerging Markets (BEM) • Arms Proliferation and WMD • Multilateralism

  26. Sources on Clinton Doctrine • A National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement, February 1995 • A National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement, February 1996 • A National Security Strategy for a New Century, May 1997 • A National Security Strategy for a New Century, October 1998 • A National Security Strategy for a New Century, December 1999 • A National Security Strategy for a Global Age, December 2000. • Speeches by Clinton, Lake, and Albright. September 1993 • Speeches by Christopher and Albright, November 1993

  27. Bush Doctrine • Choosing Sides • Preemption (Preventive War) • Linkage of terrorism and WMD • Regime Change • Multilateralism • 1995 Spreading Democracy • Bush 43 as an idealist

  28. Documents on the Bush Doctrine • Bush Administration’s National Security Strategy, September 2002 • Bush Administration National Security Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction • President GW Bush’s West Point Commencement speech, June 2002 • President GW Bush’s Second Inaugural Address, January 2005 • President GW Bush’s State of the Union Address,February 2005 • President GW Bush speech on the war on terrorism October 2005 • Bush Administration’s, “National Security Strategy of the US,” March 2006