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Projecting the Future of the Cyber University and the New Roles of Instructors. Curt Bonk, Indiana University (and [email protected] Timeout!!! What do you do with technology in Korea today? What about 10 years ago???.

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projecting the future of the cyber university and the new roles of instructors

Projecting the Future of the Cyber University and the New Roles of Instructors

Curt Bonk, Indiana University


[email protected]

A Vision of E-learning for America’s Workforce, Report of the Commission on Technology and Adult Learning, (2001, June)
  • A remarkable 84 percent of two-and four-year colleges in the United States expect to offer distance learning courses in 2002” (only 58% did in 1998) (US Dept of Education report, 2000)
  • Web-based training is expected to increase 900 percent between 1999 and 2003.” (ASTD, State of the Industry Report 2001).
problems faced

“Lack of admin vision.”

“Lack of incentive from admin and the fact that they do not understand the time needed.”

“Lack of system support.”

“Little recognition that this is valuable.”

“Rapacious U intellectual property policy.”

“Unclear univ. policies concerning int property.”


“Difficulty in performing lab experiments online.”

“Lack of appropriate models for pedagogy.”


“More ideas than time to implement.”

“Not enough time to correct online assign.”

“People need sleep; Web spins forever.”

Problems Faced
training outside support
TrainingOutside Support
  • Training (
  • Courses & Certificates (JIU, e-education)
  • Reports, Newsletters, & Pubs
  • Aggregators of Info(CourseShare, Merlot)
  • Global Forums (; GEN)
  • Resources, Guides/Tips, Link Collections, Online Journals, Library Resources
certified online instructor program
Certified Online Instructor Program
  • Walden Institute—12 Week Online Certification (Cost = $995)
  • 2 tracks: one for higher ed and one for online corporate trainer
    • Online tools and purpose
    • Instructional design theory & techniques
    • Distance ed evaluation
    • Quality assurance
    • Collab learning communities
web based teaching learning workshops indiana university
Web-Based Teaching & Learning Workshops (Indiana University)
  • 5 Day workshops: $895/person
  • Understand Web technologies
  • Apply sound instructional design
  • Use Web development tools
  • Hands-on instruction
  • Evaluate current environments, conduct needs assessment, apply to current project
facultytraining net mark adams Adams)
  • $400 for 4 week course for beginners
  • $3,500 for an 8 week Master Instructor course for those wanting to license and teach course at own institution
  • Offered twice/month, 20 participants max
  • Topics: Online learning terminology, building a learning community, models, theories, and strategies, instructional design, course development, teaching/making connections, course management/admin,


  • DWeb: Training the Trainer—Designing, Developing, and Delivering Web-Based Training ($1,200 Canadian)

(8 weeks: Technology, design, learning, moderating, assessment, course development,

  • Techniques for Online Teaching and Moderation
  • Writing Multimedia Messages for Training
distance ed certificate program univ of wisconsin madison
Distance Ed Certificate Program (Univ of Wisconsin-Madison)
  • 12-18 month self-paced certificate program, 20 CEUs, $2,500-$3,185
  • Integrate into practical experiences
  • Combines distance learning formats to cater to busy working professionals
  • Open enrollment and self-paced
  • Support services
Administrators and faculty members at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are debating what could become a $100-million effort to create extensive World Wide Web pages for nearly every course the university offers.

Jeffrey R. Young, March 1, 2001, The Chronicle of Higher Ed

In an effort to analyze and improve their teaching, some professors are creating multimedia portfolios that try to capture the complex interactions that occur in the classroom.

Jeffrey R. Young, The Chronicle of Higher Ed (reporting on the new Knowledge Media Lab, created by the Andrew Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching)


inside support
Inside Support…
  • Instructional Consulting
  • Mentoring (strategic planning $)
  • Small Pots of Funding
  • Help desks, institutes, 1:1, tutorials
  • Summer and Year Round Workshops
  • Office of Distributed Learning
  • Colloquiums, Tech Showcases, Guest Speakers
    • Newsletters, guides, active learning grants, annual reports, faculty development, brown bags, other professional development
four key hats of instructors
Four Key Hats of Instructors:
  • Technical—do students have basics? Does their equipment work? Passwords work?
  • Managerial—Do students understand the assignments and course structure?
  • Pedagogical—How are students interacting, summarizing, debating, thinking?
  • Social—What is the general tone? Is there a human side to this course? Joking allowed?
  • Other: firefighter, convener, weaver, tutor, conductor, host, mediator, filter, editor, facilitator, negotiator, e-police, concierge, marketer, assistant, etc.
class 1 undergraduate course ed psych
Class #1: Undergraduate Course: Ed Psych
  • Technical—Train, early tasks, be flexible, used custom built tools (& INSITE & e-ed)
  • Managerial—Initial meeting(s), detailed syllabus, calendar, posting dots, post administrivia, assign e-mail pals
  • Pedagogical—Peer fdbk, debates, starter-wrapper, cases, structured controversy, field reflections, portfolios, teams
  • Social—Café, humor, interactivity, pics, profiles, foreign guests
class 2 graduate course instructional technology
Class #2: Graduate Course: Instructional Technology
  • Technical—Find collab tool (i.e., ACT)
  • Managerial—FAQs, PBL teams, rubrics, weekly e-mail feedback, clear expectations, monitor discussions, post when off track
  • Pedagogical—PBL environment, inquiry, value multiple perspectives
  • Social—Create online community, support casual conversation, invite visitors
class 3a 3b vocational college course computer info systems
Class #3a & #3b: Vocational College Course: Computer Info Systems
  • Technical—Use course management tool (e-education) and then developed custom site
  • Managerial—Use nongraded online tests before real test, assignment page, gradebook
  • Pedagogical—Project based--create Web sites and designs, online peer feedback
  • Social—Profiles page, digital camera pics, combine face-to-face and online.
class 4 graduate education course instructional technology
Class #4: Graduate Education Course: Instructional Technology
  • Technical—Orientation task (SitesScape Forum), decisions on preferred WP’ers, etc.
  • Managerial—Portfolios give overview of how doing, e-mail updates, track logins
  • Pedagogical—Online discussion themes, post favorite Web link, intro, devil’s advocates, link peer responses, ask probing q’s, portfolios, peer fdbk on portfolios
  • Social—Discuss online concerns & survival tactics, profiles, photos, instructor anecdotes
e moderator
  • Refers to online teaching and facilitation role. Moderating used to mean to preside over a meeting or a discussion, but in the electronic world, it means more than that. It is all roles combined—to hold meetings, to encourage, to provide information, to question, to summarize, etc. (Collins & Berge, 1997; Gilly Salmon, 2000); see
online concierge
Online Concierge
  • To provide support and information on request (perhaps a map of the area…) (Gilly Salmon, 2000).
personal learning trainer
Personal Learning Trainer
  • Learners need a personal trainer to lead them through materials and networks, identify relevant materials and advisors and ways to move forward (Mason, 1998; Salmon, 2000).
e police
  • While one hopes you will not call yourself this nor find the need to make laws and enforce them, you will need some Code of Practice or set procedures, and protocols for e-moderators (Gilly Salmon, 2000).
online conductor
Online Conductor
  • The pulling together of a variety of resources as people as in an orchestra to produce beautiful integrated sound or perhaps electrical current conductors if your conferences are effective and flow along, there will be energy, excitement, and power (Gilly Salmon, 2000).
  • A term that is used especially with online conferences and courses where there is a fairly sizable audience (Gilly Salmon, 2000).
online negotiator
Online Negotiator
  • Where knowledge construction online is desired, the key role for the e-moderator is one of negotiating the meaning of activities and information thought online discussion and construction (Gilly Salmon, 2000).
online host
Online Host
  • The social role of online working is important so there may be a need for a social host or hostess. They do not need to run social events online (though they may) but ensure everyone is greeted and introduced to others with like-minded interests (Gilly Salmon, 2000).
other hats36
Other Hats
  • Weaver—linking comments/threads
  • Tutor—individualized attention
  • Participant—joint learner
  • Provocateur—stir the pot (& calm flames)
  • Observer—watch ideas and events unfold
  • Mentor—personally apprentice students
  • Community Organizer—keep system going
still more hats

Devil’s advocate













Still More Hats
activity pick a hat from 40 options






Ideal World:






Activity: Pick a Hat from 40 Options
participant categories
Participant Categories
  • Wanderer/Lurker
  • Contributor/Participant
  • Mentor/Expert
  • Instructor
  • Seeker/Questioner
  • Starter-Wrapper
  • Starter/Mediator-Wrapper
many other roles








Devil’s Advocate









Many Other Roles
Activity: Pick a Role Or Role Taking TaskName a role missing from this sheet and discuss how you might use it(see Bonk’s 28 roles)
online mentoring and assistance online
Online Mentoring and Assistance Online

Twelve forms of electronic learning mentoring and assistance(Bonk & Kim, 1998; Tharp, 1993; Bonk et al., 2001)

1. Social (and cognitive) Acknowledgement:"Hello...," "I agree with everything said so far...," "Wow, what a case," "This case certainly has provoked a lot of discussion...," "Glad you could join us..."
2. Questioning:"What is the name of this concept...?," "Another reason for this might be...?," "An example of this is...," "In contrast to this might be...,""What else might be important here...?," "Who can tell me....?," "How might the teacher..?." "What is the real problem here...?," "How is this related to...?,“, "Can you justify this?"
3. Direct Instruction:"I think in class we mentioned that...," Chapter ‘X’ talks about...," "Remember back to the first week of the semester when we went over ‘X’ which indicated that..."
4. Modeling/Examples:"I think I solved this sort of problem once when I...," "Remember that video we saw on ‘X’ wherein ‘Y’ decided to...," "Doesn't ‘X’ give insight into this problem in case ‘Z’ when he/she said..."
5. Feedback/Praise:"Wow, I'm impressed...," "That shows real insight into...," "Are you sure you have considered...," "Thanks for responding to ‘X’...," "I have yet to see you or anyone mention..."
6. Cognitive Task Structuring:"You know, the task asks you to do...," "Ok, as was required, you should now summarize the peer responses that you have received...," "How might the textbook authors have solved this case."
7. Cognitive Elaborations/Explanations:"Provide more information here that explains your rationale," "Please clarify what you mean by...," "I'm just not sure what you mean by...," "Please evaluate this solution a little more carefully."
8. Push to Explore:"You might want to write to Dr. ‘XYZ’ for...," "You might want to do an ERIC search on this topic...," "Perhaps there is a URL on the Web that addresses this topic..."
9. Fostering Reflection/Self Awareness:"Restate again what the teacher did here," "How have you seen this before?," "When you took over this class, what was the first thing you did?," "Describe how your teaching philosophy will vary from this...," "How might an expert teacher handle this situation?"
10. Encouraging Articulation/Dialogue Prompting:"What was the problem solving process the teacher faced here?," "Does anyone have a counterpoint or alternative to this situation?," "Can someone give me three good reasons why...," "It still seems like something is missing here, I just can't put my finger on it."
11. General Advice/Scaffolding/Suggestions: "If I were in her shoes, I would...," "Perhaps I would think twice about putting these people into...," "I know that I would first...," "How totally ridiculous this all is; certainly the “person” should be able to provide some..."
12. Management (via private e-mail or discussion):"Don't just criticize....please be sincere when you respond to your peers," "If you had put your case in on time, you would have gotten more feedback." "If you do this again, we will have to take away your privileges."
Web Facilitation???Berge Collins AssociatesMauri Collins and Zane L. Berge
f acilitation dennen 2001
Facilitation(Dennen, 2001)
  • Participation was higher when students had a clear goal & extrinsic motivation to participate
  • Relevance has a positive effect on participation
  • Greater dialogue when shared perspectives
  • Fact-based q’ing strategies did not work well
  • Consistent, regular fdbk motivates students
  • Quantitative and qualitative guidelines
facilitating electronic discussion
Facilitating Electronic Discussion
  • Have Students Initiate, Sign up for Roles
  • Provide Guidelines and Structure
  • Weave and Summarize Weekly
  • Be patient, prompt, and clear
  • Foster Role Play, Debate, and Interaction
  • Assign Due Dates, Times, and Points
  • Constantly Monitor, Converse not Dictate
  • Assign Buddies/Pals or Include Mentoring
how facilitate online community
How Facilitate Online Community?
  • Safety: Establish safe environment
  • Tone: Flexible, inviting, positive, respect
  • Personal: Self-disclosures, open, stories telling
  • Sharing: Share frustrations, celebrations, etc
  • Collaboration: Camaraderie/empathy
  • Common language: conversational chat space
  • Task completion: set milestones & grp goals
  • Other: Meaningful, choice, simple, purpose...
But How Avoid Shovelware???“This form of structure… encourages teachers designing new products to simply “shovel” existing resources into on-line Web pages and discourages any deliberate or intentional design of learning strategy.” (Oliver & McLoughlin, 1999)
intrinsic motivation
Intrinsic Motivation

“…innate propensity to engage one’s interests and exercise one’s capabilities, and, in doing so, to seek out and master optimal challenges

(i.e., it emerges from needs, inner strivings, and personal curiosity for growth)

See: Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. NY: Plenum Press.

extrinsic motivation
Extrinsic Motivation

“…is motivation that arises from external contingencies.” (i.e., students who act to get high grades, win a trophy, comply with a deadline—means-to-an-end motivation)

See Johnmarshall Reeve (1996). Motivating Others: Nurturing inner motivational resources. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Motivational Terms?See Johnmarshall Reeve (1996). Motivating Others: Nurturing inner motivational resources. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. (UW-Milwaukee)
  • Tone/Climate: Psych Safety, Comfort, Belonging
  • Feedback: Responsive, Supports, Encouragement
  • Engagement: Effort, Involvement, Excitement
  • Meaningfulness: Interesting, Relevant, Authentic
  • Choice: Flexibility, Opportunities, Autonomy
  • Variety: Novelty, Intrigue, Unknowns
  • Curiosity: Fun, Fantasy, Control
  • Tension: Challenge, Dissonance, Controversy
  • Interactive: Collaborative, Team-Based, Community
  • Goal Driven: Product-Based, Success, Ownership
1 tone climate b thiagi like ice breakers
1. Tone/Climate:B. Thiagi-Like Ice Breakers

1. Eight Nouns Activity:

1. Introduce self using 8 nouns

2. Explain why choose each noun

3. Comment on 1-2 peer postings

2. Coffee House Expectations

1. Have everyone post 2-3 course expectations

2. Instructor summarizes and comments on how they might be met

(or make public commitments of how they will fit into busy schedules!)

2 feedback a requiring peer feedback
2. FeedbackA. Requiring Peer Feedback


1. Require minimum # of peer comments and give guidance (e.g., they should do…)

2. Peer Feedback Through Templates—give templates to complete peer evaluations.

3. Have e-papers contest(s)

2. Feedback:B. Acknowledgement via E-mail, Live Chats, Telephone (Acknowledge questions or completed assignments)
2. Feedback:C. Self-Testing and Self-Assessments(Giving Exams in the Chat Room!, Janet Marta, NW Missouri State Univ, Syllabus, January 2002)
  • Post times when will be available for 30 minute slots, first come, first serve.
  • Give 10-12 big theoretical questions to study for.
  • Tell can skip one.
  • Assessment will be a dialogue.
  • Get them there 1-2 minutes early.
  • Have hit enter every 2-3 sentences.
  • Ask q’s, redirect, push for clarity, etc.
  • Covers about 3 questions in 30 minutes.
2 feedback instructor d reflective writing
2. Feedback (Instructor)D. Reflective Writing


  • Minute Papers, Muddiest Pt Papers
  • PMI (Plus, Minus, Interesting), KWL
  • Summaries
  • Pros and Cons
    • Email instructor after class on what learned or failed to learn…

(David Brown, Syllabus, January 2002, p. 23)

3 engagement b electronic voting and polling
3. Engagement:B. Electronic Voting and Polling

1. Ask students to vote on issue before class (anonymously or send directly to the instructor)

2. Instructor pulls out minority pt of view

3. Discuss with majority pt of view

4. Repoll students after class

(Note: Delphi or Timed Disclosure Technique: anomymous input till a due date

and then post results and

reconsider until consensus

Rick Kulp, IBM, 1999)

3 engagement c survey student opinions e g infopoll surveysolutions zoomerang surveyshare com
3. EngagementC. Survey Student Opinions(e.g., InfoPoll, SurveySolutions, Zoomerang,
4 meaningfulness a job or field reflections
4. Meaningfulness:A. Job or Field Reflections
  • Instructor provides reflection or prompt for job related or field observations
  • Reflect on job setting or observe in field
  • Record notes on Web and reflect on concepts from chapter
  • Respond to peers
  • Instructor summarizes posts

Alternative: Pool field interviews

of practitioners

4 meaningfulness b case creation and simulations
4. Meaningfulness:B. Case Creation and Simulations
  • Model how to write a case
  • Practice answering cases.
  • Generate 2-3 cases during semester based on field experiences.
  • Link to the text material—relate to how how text author or instructor might solve.
  • Respond to 6-8 peer cases.
  • Summarize the discussion in their case.
  • Summarize discussion in a peer case.

(Note: method akin to storytelling)

7 curiosity a electronic seance
7. Curiosity: A. Electronic Seance
  • Students read books from famous dead people
  • Convene when dark (sync or asynchronous).
  • Present present day problem for them to solve
  • Participate from within those characters (e.g., read direct quotes from books or articles)
  • Invite expert guests from other campuses
  • Keep chat open for set time period
  • Debrief
7 curiosity b electronic guests mentoring
7. Curiosity: B. Electronic Guests & Mentoring
  • Find article or topic that is controversial
  • Invite person associated with that article (perhaps based on student suggestions)
  • Hold real time chat
  • Pose questions
  • Discuss and debrief (i.e., did anyone change their minds?)

(Alternatives: Email Interviews with experts

Assignments with expert reviews)

8 tension a role play
8. Tension: A. Role Play

A. Role Play Personalities

  • List possible roles or personalities (e.g., coach, optimist, devil’s advocate, etc.)
  • Sign up for different role every week (or 5-6 key roles)
  • Reassign roles if someone drops class
  • Perform within roles—refer to different personalities

B. Assume Persona of Scholar

    • Enroll famous people in your course
    • Students assume voice of that person for one or more sessions
    • Enter debate topic or Respond to debate topic
    • Respond to rdg reflections of others or react to own
9 interactive a critical constructive friends email pals web buddies
9. Interactive: A. Critical/Constructive Friends, Email Pals, Web Buddies
  • Assign a critical friend (perhaps based on commonalities).
  • Post weekly updates of projects, send reminders of due dates, help where needed.
  • Provide criticism to peer (I.e., what is strong and weak, what’s missing, what hits the mark) as well as suggestions for strengthening.

In effect, critical friends do not slide over weaknesses, but confront them kindly and directly.

  • Reflect on experience.
10 goal driven gallery tours
10. Goal Driven:Gallery Tours
  • Assign Topic or Project

(e.g., Team or Class White Paper, Bus Plan, Study Guide, Glossary, Journal, Model Exam Answers)

  • Students Post to Web
  • Experts Review and Rate
  • Try to Combine Projects
motivational top ten
Motivational Top Ten

1. Tone/Climate: Ice Breakers, Peer Sharing

2. Feedback: Self-Tests, Reading Reactions

3. Engagement: Q’ing, Polling, Voting

4. Meaningfulness: Job/Field Reflections, Cases

5. Choice: Topical Discussions, Starter-Wrapper

6. Variety: Brainstorming, Roundrobins

7. Curiosity: Seances, Electronic Guests/Mentors

8. Tension: Role Play, Debates, Controversy

9. Interactive: E-Pals, Symposia, Expert Panels

10. Goal Driven: Group PS, Jigsaw, Gallery Tours

Pick One…??? (circle one)

university entrepreneurship
University Entrepreneurship
  • Colleges target corp training/exec education.
  • 22 virtual universities to cooperate.
  • 9 universities on 4 continents collaborate to offer online graduate and professional development courses in Asia.
  • Univ of the Arctic is a partnership of 31 “high latitude” colleges, universities, and governments across 8 nations. First course is “Introduction to Circumpolar Studies.” (Feb 15, 2002, Chronicle of Higher Education)
faculty entrepreneurship
Faculty Entrepreneurship
  • Create Class Radio Stations
  • Manage or Create Online Journals
  • Start Discussion Forums
  • Freelance Instructor & Guest Expert
  • Develop new courses or programs
  • Teaching music performance over Web
the good
The Good

Douglas Rowlett has turned his English-department office into a virtual radio station that broadcasts continuously on the Internet, offering a mix of poetry readings, lectures, and popular music. He plans to deliver entire courses over the Internet radio station.

Jeffrey R. Young (Jan 8., 2001). Chronicle of Higher Ed.

the bad
The Bad

Michael J. Saylor’s plans to create an online university that would offer free education all over the world appear to have been put on hold, at least temporarily. Mr. Saylor, the software magnate, has been occupied for the past few months with financial difficulties at his company, MicroStrategy, Inc.

(Sarah Carr, June 22, 2000, Chronicle of Higher Ed)

and the ugly
And The Ugly

Santa Clara University has fired an adjunct instructor who sold his students thousands of dollars worth of stock in an online-education venture that appears to never have gotten off the ground.

Sarah Carr, The Chronicle of Higher Ed.

developing a successful partnership portfolio duin baer in press
Developing a Successful Partnership Portfolio(Duin & Baer, in press)
  • Need to List: Vision, Description, Beliefs, Assumptions, Operations, Commitment, Collaboration, Risk, Control, Adaptation, and ROI (for learners, faculty, campus, state/country)
  • Five Types of Partnerships: Commerce alliance, minority equity investment, joint venture, spin off, and merger or acquisition
  • Four Types of Risks: legal, financial, experimentation, and academic
other arti help http arti indiana edu
Other ARTI Help
  • Help with Tech Transfer.
    • Intellectual Property, Invention Disclosure, etc.
  • Licensing, Patents, and Trademarks.
  • Access to best strategists, scientists, cutting-edge labs, communication tools, info technologies.
  • Training, consortia, mentoring, sharing meetings.
  • Multidisciplinary project teams, resources, and facilities.
“We are evolving out of the era of the Lone Rangers…faculty members can choose to be involved in the design, development, content expertise, delivery, or distribution of course…” (Richard T. Hezel)

Sarah Carr, (Dec 15, 2000, A47), A Day in the Life of a New Type of Professor, The Chronicle of Higher Education

exploratory technology in 2020
Exploratory Technology in 2020
  • Global Chat, Interplanetary Chat—Guest Lectures from Mars, Space Shuttle, Moon,
  • Virtual Degrees (include educational genealogies)
  • Virtual Instructor Combos—You design guest lectures and mix personalities; holograms
  • Global Instructors (with online skill ratings)
  • Lifetime User Cyberlearning Statistics
  • Nugget and Knowledge Object Sharing
  • Freelance Instructors
  • Debates with the Greats!
a vision of what is coming soon
A Vision of What is Coming Soon
  • Int’l colleagues, Intraplanetary mentoring
  • Coursesharing tools, Online Consortia
  • Wireless, Integrated, & GPS Technologies (Cell Phone, Email, Web)
    • e.g., Previous Class Discussions
  • More Training than Education
  • Textbook Web Sites and Simulation Tools
  • Personal Assistants and Intelligent Tutors
  • Essay Scoring Tools
  • Course Continuation and Legacies
cyber u trends and phases
Cyber U Trends and Phases
  • Phase 1: Novelty (i.e., ignore it and it may go away)
  • Phase II: Unit Within Larger Campus (some domains or units are more active)
  • Phase III. Separate University (not equal)
  • Phase IV. The Age of Respect (part of standard flexible learning initiative or options)
  • Phase V. A New Standard or Technology Emerges
universities replaced no
Universities Replaced? No...
  • Most distance lrng is mixed--Web & Live
  • Entrenched expectations and procedures
  • Brick and mortar needs to be used
  • Online learning only approximates live lrng
  • Expanding birth rate = need for more educ.
  • Web learning is for select reasons
  • Most colleges will find their niche
  • Socialization argument
    • (the 18-20 year old need to party hardy)
universities replaced yes
Universities Replaced--Yes!
  • Web has more potential for active lrng.
  • Tchg/lrng expectations are changing fast!
  • Expanding birth rate = experiments in 3rd world countries will have huge payoffs.
  • Web courses can be repurposed & reused.
  • Web learning will increase in stability
  • Real chance to overthrow the system!!!
  • Who needs more football and drinking?
forces acting against replacement
Forces Acting Against Replacement
  • Yes, radical change, but room for both
  • High actual costs of online learning
  • Difficult to be animated on the Web
  • Hard to measure benefits
  • Tenure & hard to change practices
  • Institutional Politics
  • Eye damage reports due to overexposure
forces in favor of replacement
Forces In Favor of Replacement
  • States not funding as highly as before
  • Wireless technology; add’l emerging tech
  • Global economy and marketplace
  • Commercialization of best lrng products
  • Innovative faculty; stalling universities
  • Demand for perpetual lrng/just in time info
  • Growth in populations
  • Lots of wasted space in university offices
virtual university categories
Virtual University Categories

I. Core Faculty Offers Distance Ed

(Univ of Phoenix, Athabasca Univ)

II. Core Faculty Devel Lrng Opportunities

(Athena University, Cenquest)

III. No Core Faculty: Manage Learning Oppor

(Jones/E-education, WebCT, VU, West Gov)

IV. Virtual Learning Indexes

(Globewide Network Academy, World Lecture Hall)

Source: Strategic Choices for the Academy: How the Demand for Lifelong Learning Will Re-Create Higher Education. By D. J. Rowly, H. D. Lujan, & M. G. Dolence, Jossey-Bass Publishers, March, 1998.

faculty member in 2020
Faculty Member in 2020
  • Track 1: Technical Specialist
  • Track 2: Personal Guide
  • Track 3: Online Facilitator
  • Track 4: Course Developer
  • Track 5: Course or Program Manager
  • Track 6: Work for Hire Online Lecturer
  • Track 7: High School Teacher
  • Track 8: Unemployed
track 1 technical specialist
Track 1: Technical Specialist
  • Help critique technical aspects of media and materials built into online courses. Here one would be part of a course development team or instructional design unit. Freelance learning object evaluator. Here one would likely operate alone or as part of a consulting company.
track 2 personal guide
Track 2: Personal Guide
  • Provide program or course guidance to students on demand or preplanned. Becomes more of a generalist across university offerings. For example, one might help students see how different learning objects or modules fit together into a degree.
track 3 online facilitator
Track 3: Online Facilitator
  • Offers timely and informed support to students struggling to complete an online course or inserting questions and nudging development of students who are successfully completing different modules. This is the most similar to college teaching positions today.
track 4 course developer
Track 4: Course Developer
  • Help develop specific courses or topic areas for one or more universities. In many institutions, this will move beyond a course royalty system to a paid position.
track 5 course or program manager
Track 5: Course or Program Manager
  • Supervisor or manager of an entire new program or courses, most often leading to certificates or master’s degrees. Similar in stature to a development head or chairperson.
track 6 work for hire online lecturer
Track 6: Work for Hire Online Lecturer
  • Is a freelance instructor for one course or a range of course. May work on just one campus or on a range of campuses around the world. While this will be highly popular and rejuvenate careers, institutional policies are yet to be sorted out.
track 7 high school teacher
Track 7: High School Teacher
  • As universities begin to offer secondary degrees, some college faculty with online teaching experience and teaching degrees will find positions in those classes. Some may view such positions as being demoted to the minor leagues.
track 8 unemployed
Track 8: Unemployed
  • If one does not find a niche in one or more of the above tracks or roles, he or she will likely be unemployed or highly unsuccessful.
student differences in 2020
Student Differences in 2020
  • Live Longer
  • More Educated
    • Multiple Degrees
    • Accustomed to Multiple Learning Formats
    • Design own programs and courses
  • Specialists AND Generalists
  • Courses/Degrees for unknown occupations
  • Expect to Take Courses Where Live
  • Cyber-students (various digital aids attached to appendages)
possible roles of university in 2020
Possible Roles of University in 2020
  • Meeting place (degrees conferred, picnics, etc.)
  • Certificate grantor
  • Online tech support desk
  • Matchmaking: pair students with instructors & other students for counseling/mentoring
  • Research online learning communities
  • Outward bound-like experiences (tours and experiences of what universities used to be like)
possible scenarios in year 2020
Possible Scenarios in Year 2020
  • Virtual U’s and Traditional U’s Coexist
  • Traditional Univ’s buy stake in Virtual U’s
  • Traditional Univ’s form Consortia
  • Some Trad U’s Move Ahead, Some Don’t
  • Other Technology arise well beyond Web
  • Large Virtual U’s Buy Competing Traditional U’s and shut them down
what uses for old institutions of higher learning
What Uses for Old Institutions of Higher Learning???
  • Museums
  • Historical Monuments
  • Bomb Shelters
  • Resorts and Apartment Complexes
  • Nostalgic Retirement Homes
  • Green Space
  • Prisons
general recommendations
General Recommendations
  • Develop Instructor Training Programs
  • Foster Instructor Recognition and Support
  • Create Instructor & Resource Sharing Tools
  • Develop Online Learning Policies
  • Conduct Online Learning Research
  • Form Online Learning Dev Partnerships
  • Create/Test Online Learning Pedagogy