new bentgrasses l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
New Bentgrasses PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
New Bentgrasses

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 80

New Bentgrasses - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 402 Views
  • Uploaded on

New Bentgrasses. Dr. Leah A. Brilman. Combine different species and types one trial Differential herbicide/fungicide response Different requirements for thatch control NTEP Trials at Universities - United States National Turfgrass Evaluation Program - www.ntep.org

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'New Bentgrasses' - Olivia


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
new bentgrasses

New Bentgrasses

Dr. Leah A. Brilman

bentgrass trials
Combine different species and types one trial

Differential herbicide/fungicide response

Different requirements for thatch control

NTEP Trials at Universities - United States National Turfgrass Evaluation Program - www.ntep.org

Most not managed as on golf course

Less mowing, mowing height different

No traffic

More trials this cycle with no or reduced fungicides

Fairway and Greens trials - Greens trial on soil and sand Some varieties in only one trial due to seed availability

Bentgrass Trials
creeping bentgrass
Standard varieties - Lower density, horizontal growth

Seaside, Penncross, Penneagle, Pennlinks

Improved varieties - Moderate density for greens, tees and fairways :

Providence, SR 1020, Crenshaw, Seaside II, Trueline, Backspin, Putter, Cato, Century, Princeville, Cobra, Viper, Grand Prix, Bengal, Mariner, Regent, Imperial, ProCup, Southshore, 18th Green

More upright, versatile

Less thatch for fairways

Disease and stress resistance important characteristics for selection

Creeping bentgrass
creeping bentgrass5
Improved - Moderate high density for greens, tees and fairways

SR 1150, SR 1119, Brighton (SR 1120), Sandhill, Ninety-six two, L-93, LS-44, Alpha, Independence, Bengal, Penneagle II, Pennlinks II, Benchmark DSR, 13-M

Higher density than older cultivars - Upright growth

Slightly more potential for thatch - watch fertility

Most moderately fine texture

Select for important disease resistance, color, stress tolerance

Creeping bentgrass
creeping bentgrass6
Versatile varieties - High Density for greens, tees and fairways

007 (DSB), MacKenzie, Memorial, Kingpin

High density but with upright growth so more versatile

Low tendency for Bentgrass Bloat - scalping

Slightly greater thatch management needs

Low Poa annua invasion

May be combined with Ultra for greens or improved types in fairway blends

Creeping bentgrass
creeping bentgrass7
Ultra varieties - Very high density - greens

Tyee, Authority, T-1, Shark, CY-2, Declaration - new ones this type

Penn G-2, G-6, A-1, A-2, A-4, G-1 - all from selections at Augusta, GA - very similar genetics

Some high thatch producers - must have budget and equipment to control, some newer upright growth

Slower repair aerification holes, ball marks

Use smaller diameter holes, topdress frequently

Upright, dense growth - good at low height

Good wear tolerance

Creeping bentgrass
creeping bentgrass8
Divot repair rate

Variable by cultivar - Penncross not fastest despite reputation

Cover may be greater but not fully repaired

Higher density varieties sometimes ballmark less but some recover slower

All bentgrasses - use sand/seed repair mix

Add Chewings fescue into repair mix for faster germination

Waiting for 6 weeks to grow in for repair = Poa annua

Creeping bentgrass
creeping bentgrass9
Damage control study Clemson, University

Repair of damage from 2 inch hole in June and August

Repair rate differed by type - standard and improved typically better than dense.

Percent repair after 6 weeks 1998

Cultivar June Aug. Cultivar June Aug.

Penncross 43 33 Crenshaw 33 45

Southshore 41 36 Penn G-2 32 36

Putter 41 39 Crens/Cato 31 37

Pennlinks 41 33 Cato 30 37

Mariner 39 28 Penn A-1 30 35

Viper 38 37 Penn G-1 30 30

SR 1020 37 35 Providence 29 35

SR 1119 37 34 Penn A-4 29 35

L-93 36 45 Penn G-6 27 33

Dominant 34 46 LSD @ 5% 10 11

Creeping bentgrass
slide10
Versatile type with Ultra Greens performance

Stress tolerant germplasm

High turf quality - Greens, tees and fairways

Very high density - All seasons - less thatch

Bright medium green color

Fine leaf texture

Reduced fertilizer requirement

Winter-active growth

High resistance to dollar spot, brown patch and Fusarium patch

MacKenzie creeping bentgrass

mackenzie creeping bentgrass
Rutgers Univ.

July, 2004

Fairway Trial

High stress resistance

MacKenzie Creeping Bentgrass

SR 1119 MacKenzie

mackenzie creeping bentgrass12
Utah State University

July, 2005

Comparison with Kingpin

Brighter color, density

MacKenzie Creeping Bentgrass

SR 1119 MacKenzie

Kingpin MacKenzie

mackenzie creeping bentgrass13
Greens Trial

Caledonia G.C.

Chiba Prefecture

Japan

MacKenzie Creeping Bentgrass

Kingpin Mackenzie

slide14
Density of Creeping bentgrass cultivars in Japan. Greens Trial at Caldonian G.C. Chiba Prefecture Japan. Greenkeeper Mr. Ishii

Seeded May 9, 2006, Data taken on August 25, 2006 (4 reps)

Cultivar Stems / sq. cm.

MacKenzie 22.8

SR 1150 22.0

Authority 19.0

LS-44 19.0

T-1 18.0

Penn G-2 15.8

Grandprix 15.4

CY-2 15.4

L-93 15.0

Penncross 10.4

MacKenzie creeping bentgrass

slide15
Percent establishment ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars on a green at Raleigh, NC 2003 NTEP – Putting Green 2004 Data

Cultivar Nov. 03 Mean

007 (DSB) 91.7 96.0

MacKenzie (SRX 1GPD) 85.0 93.2

Pennlinks II 81.7 90.9

Shark 80.0 90.3

T-1 83.3 90.3

Tyee (SRX 1GD) 80.0 88.1

Benchmark DSR 78.3 87.2

Penncross 75.0 85.9

Kingpin 78.3 85.6

Authority 75.0 85.6

Independence 70.0 83.6

Penn A-1 71.7 82.6

Declaration 68.3 80.6

LSD @ 5% 22.7 14.7

MacKenzie creeping bentgrass

slide16
Density of creeping bentgrass cultivars in greens trials. 2003 NTEP Trial 2005 Data

Turfgrass Density ratings 1-9, 9 = Highest Density

Summer Fall

Cultivar Density Density

MacKenzie 7.8 7.5

Tyee 7.5 7.3

Shark 7.4 7.2

Authority 7.4 7.2

Benchmark DSR 7.3 6.6

007 7.3 6.6

T-1 7.3 7.3

CY-2 7.2 6.7

Declaration 7.3 6.8

Memorial 7.1 7.2

Alpha 6.8 6.8

Penn A-1 6.8 6.8

Pennlinks II 6.3 6.2

Penncross 5.7 5.6

LSD @ 5% 0.4 0.7

MacKenzie creeping bentgrass

slide17
Quality ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars on a soil green at twelve locations.

2003 NTEP – Putting Green 2005 Data

Turfgrass Quality ratings 1-9, 9 = Ideal Turf

Cultivar Quality Cultivar Quality

MacKenzie 6.7 Benchmark DSR 6.4

Declaration 6.7 T-1 6.4

Authority 6.7 Penn A-1 6.3

CY-2 6.6 Alpha 6.2

Memorial 6.6 Pennlinks II 5.8

007 (DSB) 6.5 Penncross 5.4

Tyee (SRX 1GD) 6.5

Kingpin 6.5 LSD @ 5% 0.2

MacKenzie creeping bentgrass

slide18
Quality ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars grown on a green at 10 locations using an 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) or lower cutting height

2003 NTEP – Putting Green 2005 Data

Turfgrass Quality ratings 1-9, 9 = Ideal Turf

Cultivar Quality Cultivar Quality

Declaration 6.8 Memorial 6.4

MacKenzie 6.7 T-1 6.3

Authority 6.7 Benchmark DSR 6.2

Tyee (SRX 1GD) 6.6 Alpha 6.0

CY-2 6.6 Pennlinks II 5.5

Penn A-1 6.5 Penncross 5.0

007 (DSB) 6.5

Kingpin 6.4 LSD @ 5% 0.2

MacKenzie creeping bentgrass

slide19
Brown patch ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars on a green at Blacksburg, VA.

2003 NTEP – Putting Green 2004 Data

Brown Patch ratings 1-9, 9 = No disease

Cultivar Mean

MacKenzie (SRX 1GPD) 8.5

Kingpin 8.5

Alpha 8.3

CY-2 8.3

Tyee (SRX 1GD) 8.2

Memorial 8.0

Penncross 8.0

Shark 8.0

Pennlinks II 7.5

T-1 7.5

Declaration 7.3

Benchmark DSR 7.2

Penn A-1 7.2

LSD @ 5% 1.7

MacKenzie creeping bentgrass

mackenzie creeping bentgrass20
Puyallup, WA

July, 2006

Resists Poa annua

MacKenzie Creeping Bentgrass

MacKenzie

Kingpin Mackenzie

mackenzie creeping bentgrass21
Rutgers, NJ

Fairway trial

August, 2006

38 degrees C

95% humidity

SR 1119 and MacKenzie

MacKenzie Creeping Bentgrass

Kingpin Mackenzie

SR 1119 MacKenzie

mackenzie creeping bentgrass22
Rutgers, NJ

Greens established 2003

August, 2006

38 degrees C

95% humidity

High Density, growing

MacKenzie Creeping Bentgrass

Kingpin Mackenzie

slide23
Benefits

Excellent performance all year-round

Very high density but upright growth

Uniform putting surface

Excellent wear tolerance

Excellent summer performance

Reduced fungicide requirements

Reduced ball marks

High performance greens, tees, fairways

MacKenzie creeping bentgrass

slide24
Moderate high density type

Ideal for green, tees and fairways

Excellent turf quality

Excellent dollar spot and brown patch resistance

Leaf texture and density matches Dominant blends

Vigorous, moderately dense growth

Bright, dark green color

SR 1150 creeping bentgrass

sr 1150 creeping bentgrass
Rutgers University

– Dr. Stacy Bonos

Dollar Spot resistant

Moderately high density for greens and fairways

Color, texture match with

SR 1119, Brighton, Sandhill

High turf quality

High Brown Patch resistance

SR 1150 Creeping Bentgrass

SR 1150

Picture Rutgers Univ., Fairway Trial, July 04

slide26
Percent dollar spot ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars on a fairway or tee at Lexington, KY. 2003 NTEP – Fairway or tee 2004 Data

Cultivar % dollar spot

Declaration 0.6

Pennlinks II 3.4

SR 1150 (SRX 1PDH) 5.3

Kingpin 5.4

Mackenzie 7.4

Penncross 8.6

L-93 8.7

SR 1119 8.9

Alpha 9.1

Shark 9.3

T-1 12.2

Independence 17.1

LSD @ 5% 4.5

SR 1150 Creeping bentgrass

slide27
Quality ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars grown on a fairway under

Traffic Stress in Madison, WI

2003 NTEP – Fairway/Tee 2005 Data

Turfgrass Quality ratings 1-9, 9 = Ideal Turf

Cultivar Quality Cultivar Quality

Shark 7.4 L-93 6.5

SR 1150 7.3 T-1 6.5

Kingpin 7.1 Penncross 6.4

Alpha 6.9 Bengal 6.2

Authority 6.8 Declaration 6.2

LS-44 6.8 Pennlinks II 6.1

Princeville 6.6 Seaside 5.2

Independence 6.5 LSD @ 5% 1.3

SR 1150 creeping bentgrass

slide28
Density of Creeping bentgrass cultivars in Japan. Greens Trial at Caldonian G.C. Chiba Prefecture Japan. Greenkeeper Mr. Ishii

Seeded May 9, 2006, Data taken on August 25, 2006 (4 reps)

Cultivar Stems / sq. cm.

MacKenzie 22.8

SR 1150 22.0

Authority 19.0

LS-44 19.0

T-1 18.0

Penn G-2 15.8

Grandprix 15.4

CY-2 15.4

L-93 15.0

Penncross 10.4

SR 1150 Density

slide29
Quality ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars grown on a fairway under

Reduced Fungicides at Farmingdale, NY - Creeping bentgrasses

2003 NTEP – Fairway/Tee 2005 Data

Turfgrass Quality ratings 1-9, 9 = Ideal Turf

Cultivar Quality Cultivar Quality

SR 1150 7.0 T-1 6.6

Pennlinks II 6.9 Kingpin 6.5

Shark 6.9 MacKenzie 6.4

Indepedence 6.8 L-93 6.4

SR 1119 6.6 Authority 6.4

LS-44 6.6 Alpha 6.2

Penncross 6.6 Declaration 6.1

Princeville 6.6 LSD @ 5% 0.4

SR 1150 creeping bentgrass

sr 1150 creeping bentgrass30
Temperature of 38 degrees C

Humidity 95%

Low fungicides

Low N

SR 1150 Creeping Bentgrass

SR 1150 SR 1119

Picture Rutgers Univ., NJ Fairway Trial, August, 2006

slide31
Benefits

Versatile for use on greens, tees and fairways

Lower maintenance requirements

High performance

Reduced fungicides

Increased genetic diversity

SR 1150 creeping bentgrass

slide32
Testing Blend performance at Rutgers University, NJ

Tyee / 007

SR 1150 / SR 1119

Mackenzie / Sandhill

007 / SR 1150

007 / SR 1119 (Dominant X-treme 7 - N.A.)

007 / Mackenzie

007 / Mackenzie / Tyee

Brighton / Sandhill

Tyee / SR 7200

Creeping bentgrass blends

bentgrass strategies
Dollar spot resistance - New Michigan State, WI germplasm

Stress tolerant - germplasm from AZ with salt and heat tolerance + improved winter color

Dense types without excessive thatch

Improved varieties to blend with current stable

Salt tolerance

Snow mold resistance for northern areas

Bentgrass Strategies
kentucky bluegrass types

Kentucky Bluegrass Types

Dr. Leah A. Brilman

slide35

Kentucky Bluegrass

  • Strengths
    • Self-repairing
    • High lateral stability
    • High recuperative ability
    • Dense stand, high quality
    • Excellent mowing quality
    • High cold tolerance
    • Some cultivars with improved drought tolerance
    • Select a blend of types depending on use
slide36

Kentucky Bluegrass

  • Weaknesses
    • Poa annua invasion - less options in herbicides - new ones coming on market
    • Slow germination and establishment - heavier seeding rates better
    • Shade tolerance cultivar dependent
    • Bluegrass billbugs
    • Must mix cultivars carefully - use different types to match strengths and weaknesses
    • Not adapted to some regions
kentucky bluegrass types37
Compact Types CELA Type

Compact BVMG Type

Midnight Shamrock type

America Cheri Type

Aggressive Type Julia Type

Bellevue Type Common Type

Mid-Atlantic Type Other Type

Kentucky Bluegrass Types
kentucky bluegrass types38
These types have been verified by DNA analysis

Cultivars in most types are closely related genetically

Often no or very small DNA differences

If planting all of one type = all of one cultivar

Greater DNA differences in Aggressive / Mid-Atlantic types - based more on performance

Performance strengths and weaknesses are the same within a type

Kentucky Bluegrass Types
slide39

Why Blends and Mixtures

  • Kentucky bluegrass apomictic
  • Cultivar = Single genotype - other turfgrass species are mixture of genotypes
  • Vegetative cultivars comparison
  • Vegetative bentgrasses
  • Vegetative bermudas, zoysias, St. Augustine
  • Merion Kentucky bluegrass - stripe smut
  • Not just for disease resistance
slide40

Blending bluegrasses

  • Kentucky bluegrass
  • Melting-out resistance of blend of two cultivars intermediate between same cultivars in monostands
  • Inoculum from susceptible cultivar reduced resistance of resistant cultivar
  • Blends of two cultivars generally show resistance intermediate between each alone
  • (Vargas and Turgeon, 1980. Proc. Third ITRC 45-52.)
slide41

Blending bluegrasses

  • Early blend analysis - Dr. Funk, Rutgers
  • Sprigged out plants to ID
  • Aggressive types dominated
  • Aggressive types based on invasion in plots
  • New DNA techniques allow blend analysis
  • (Lickfeldt et al, 2002. Crop Sci. 42:842-847.)
  • 3-way blend - Unique, Midnight, Blacksburg
  • Different management and % of each at seeding
  • Final composition, 40% U, 46% M, 14% B
slide42

Blending bluegrasses

  • Why combine types in blends?
  • Each type has weakness as well as strengths
  • Single type has weaknesses
  • Midnight types - powdery mildew, winter color, rust susceptibility as seedlings
  • America types - not as dark green
  • Aggressive - dominate in blends
  • Shamrock types - billbug susceptible
  • BVMG - Very stemmy turf, poor winter performance, stripe smut susceptible
slide43

Conclusions

  • Blends do provide benefit
  • Learning long term blend peformance
  • Kentucky bluegrasses difficult to breed
  • Cooperative work breeders and NTEP to define types and publish
  • Looking at competitiveness in different environments and management
  • Never use more than 15% perennial ryegrass to maintain at least 50% bluegrass
kentucky bluegrass types44
NJ Wear - Spring, summer and fall wear (multi - use field)

High performers Low performers

Compact America

Midnight BVMG

Julia Cheri

Aggressive Common

Mid-Atlantic

Repeat with wear, compaction different seasons

Kentucky Bluegrass Types
kentucky bluegrass types45
WI Wear trial - fall wear

Combined with perennial ryegrass varying percentages

Only obtained 50% KBG with less than 15% rye

No difference between Midnight types, BVMG types, Aggressive types

Common types less wear tolerant

Midnight, Fairfax more dominant in blends

Kentucky Bluegrass Types
compact types compact midnight america
Low, compact growth

High quality turf

1/2 inch cutting height

Excellent resistance to Leaf Spot

Long Winter dormancy

Variable under Summer stress

Often purple Winter color

Compact TypesCompact, Midnight, America
slide48

Midnight Type

  • Characteristics of compact type
  • Excellent wear tolerance
  • Very dark green color
  • Late Spring green-up
  • Good heat tolerance
  • Susceptible to powdery mildew
  • Variable resistance to Summer Patch
  • Not good in shade sites
slide50

Aggressive Type

  • Aggressive lateral growth
  • Should have one in Sports Turf Blends
  • High shoot density
  • Very wear tolerant
  • Quickly knit sod and repair
  • May predominate in blend
  • Variable in other characteristics
slide52

Orfeo Kentucky

  • Aggressive cultivar
  • • Fast germination and establishment - germination in 3 - 5 days
  • Superior germination with high salt levels
  • • High wear tolerance
  • • High sod strength
  • • Tolerant of low light intensity
  • Medium green color
slide53
Germination percentage of Kentucky bluegrass varieties at 5,000 ppm salts

Preliminary data after 3 weeks

Cultivar % Germ Cultivar % Germ

Orfeo 38 SR 2284 4

SR 2109 36 Spitfire 3

Baron 24 Bandera 3

Northstar 10 Argos 3

Arcadia 8 Moonlight 0

STR 2959 6 Moonshadow 0

Showcase 4 Touchdown 0

Ulysses 4 LSD @ 5% 4

Salt germination bluegrasses

slide54

Cheetah Kentucky

  • One of the finest Kentucky Bluegrass - aggressive-type bluegrass
  • Adapted to the low light intensity
  • Superior on sports fields
  • Very dense growth habit - similar to Odyssey, Midnight, and Rugby II
  • Early spring green-up
  • Excellent sod strength
  • Very high shade tolerance
slide55

Julia-Type

  • High turf quality
  • High wear tolerance
  • High density
  • Rapid establishment
  • Good Summer performance
  • Moderate Winter performance
  • Good Leaf Spot, Stripe Smut resistance
  • Susceptible to Brown Patch, Dollar Spot
slide56

Julia Type Cultivars

  • Ulysses
  • Rampart
  • Avalanche
  • Julia
  • Caliber
  • Ikone
slide57

Rampart Kentucky

  • • Julia-type Kentucky Bluegrass
  • Larger seed - faster establishment
  • • Excellent wear tolerance - look best with wear
  • • High sod strength
  • • High heat tolerance
  • • High drought tolerance
slide58

Ulysses Kentucky blue

  • Julia type
  • High performance at 1/2 inch cut
  • Excellent performance with season-long wear
  • Excellent summer persistence
  • Uses: Fairways, Roughs, Sports Fields, Sod Production, Home Lawns
slide59

America Type

  • Characteristics of compact type
  • Finer leaf, higher density
  • Some with better rhizomes
  • Better fall and spring growth
  • Moderate Summer recovery
  • High Summer Patch resistance
  • Resistant to powdery mildew
  • Good in shade - should be in
  • Fairway mixes
slide61

Argos Kentucky

  • American/Shamrock cross
  • Compact-America
  • Low growing, dense turf
  • Shade tolerant
  • Rapid establishment
  • Aggressive rhizome growth
  • High heat tolerance
  • Early spring green-up
slide62

Mid-Atlantic Type

  • Deep, extensive roots and rhizomes
  • New cultivars in 2005 Bluegrass NTEP
  • Called RSP-types, some very aggressive
  • Vigorous turf & medium-high density
  • High Summer stress tolerance
  • Early Spring green-up
  • Good Winter performance
  • Rapid recovery from disease and wear
slide63

Mid-Atlantic Type

  • Touche’ (STR 23180)
  • Starburst (STR 2703)
  • STR 2485
  • Eagleton
  • Cabernet
  • Monopoly
  • Livingston
  • Preakness
  • Plush
touche kentucky
Turf Quality with wear of 2004 CTBT Bluegrass Trial established at North Brunswick NJ. 2005 Rating with Wear 1-9, 9 = Best

Cultivar Wear .Quality

Touche’ (STR 23180 (Mid-Atl)) 6.7

STR 2485 (Mid-Atl) 6.2

Rhythm (Mid) 6.2

Bandera (T x K) 5.7

Julia (Julia) 5.7

SR 2100 (Shamrock) 5.3

Midnight (Mid) 5.0

Diva (Compact) 5.0

Julius (Aggr) 4.2

Eagleton (Mid-Atl) 3.8

LSD @ 5% 1.0

Touche’ Kentucky
touche kentucky65
Turf Quality of 2004 CTBT Bluegrass Trial established at Rolesville, NC.

2005-2006 Rating Turf Quality 1-9, 9 = Best

Cultivar Mean .Quality

Touche (STR 23180) 5.9

STR 2485 5.9

Bandera TxK 5.7

Julia 5.0

Rhythm 4.6

Diva 4.4

Julius 4.3

Midnight 4.3

SR 2100 4.2

Eagleton 3.5

LSD @ 5% 0.6

Touche’ Kentucky
starburst kentucky
Turf Quality of 2005 CTBT Bluegrass Species Trial established at Knoxville, TN Quality 1-9, 9 = Best

Cultivar Quality

Starburst (STR 2703 Mid-Atl) 7.4

Midnight (Mid) 7.4

Touche (STR 23180 Mid-Atl) 7.2

America (Am) 7.1

Longhorn (T x K) 7.1

Livingston (Mid-Atl) 7.0

Julia (Julia) 6.9

Bandera (SPTR 2LM95 T xK) 6.7

Midnight Star (Mid) 6.6

LSD @ 5% 0.7

Starburst Kentucky
texas x kentucky bluegrass
Texas bluegrass heat and drought tolerant, extensive and deep rhizomes

Kentucky bluegrass turf quality

1st generation low fertility, low germination. Selected superior progeny

Some backcrossed to Kentucky bluegrass

More extensive rhizomes

Greater heat and drought tolerance

Must evaluate for diseases, germination vigor, apomixis

Texas X Kentucky bluegrass
slide68

Texas x Kentucky bluegrass

  • Many first hybrids poor germination
  • Thermal Blue = HB 129 = BH00-6002
  • Reveille sod type good performance
  • Improved establishment
  • High shear strength
  • Excellent rhizomes = good recovery
  • Good wear tolerance in Ohio - new ones high at Rutgers
texas x kentucky
Improved germination

High heat tolerance

Active summer growth

Need more growth before vernalization for seed

Texas X Kentucky

Bandera

texas x kentucky bluegrass71
Rhizomes on young spaced plants

Deep rhizomes contribute to recovery

Bluegrass usage further south

Top rated for shear strength NTEP

Texas X Kentucky bluegrass
slide72

Bandera T x K bluegrass

  • Study was done in Rain Out Shelter at Rutgers
  • Bandera (Reported as Sptr 21m95 instead of SPTR 2LM95) showed less decline than Thermal Blue or Midnight from 10 to 17 days drought, Kept quality longer.
  • Maintained photosynthesis longer than Midnight under drought stress
  • Recovered faster than Midnight or Thermal Blue after 41 days of drought and had a difference in stomatal resistance.
spitfire texas x kentucky
Turf Quality of 2005 CTBT Bluegrass Species Trial established at Fayetteville, Arkansas Digital Quality 1-9, 9 = Best

CultivarDigital Color Digital Quality

Midnight (Mid) 6.6 7.6

Spitfire (STR 2844 TxK) 7.3 7.4

Longhorn (T x K) 5.8 6.9

Touche (STR 23180 Mid-Atl) 5.5 6.6

Bandera (SPTR 2LM95 T xK) 5.6 6.6

America (Am) 5.7 6.5

Midnight Star (Mid) 6.3 6.4

Livingston (Mid-Atl) 4.6 6.0

Julia (Julia) 5.9 5.5

LSD @ 5% 0.7 0.8

Spitfire Texas x Kentucky
slide74

Shamrock Type

  • Moderate Winter color
  • Good resistance to Leaf Spot
  • Good turf quality and sod strength
  • Billbug susceptible
  • High seed yields
  • Less stemmy than BVMG types
  • Summer performance variable
  • Large seed - quick germination
slide76

BVMG Type

  • Wear tolerance poor, not good for sports turf
  • Use Shmarock types instead for quick germination
  • High seed yields so cheap seed
  • Medium-good turf
  • Stripe Smut susceptible, Billbug susceptible
  • Medium low growth, Medium wide leaves
  • Large seed - quick germ
  • Very stemmy turf
  • Poor Winter performance
slide78

Common Type(Midwest Ecotypes)

  • Do not use for sports turf
  • Erect growth and narrow leaf blades
  • Good Summer stress tolerance (may go dormant)
  • High Leaf Spot susceptibility
  • Poor Winter color and performance
  • Early seed production
  • Good for soil stabilization/conservation
slide80

New Cultivars

  • SR 4600 perennial ryegrass
  • Harrier perennial ryegrass
  • Calypso III perennial ryegrass
  • SR 8650 tall fescue
  • SR 5250 strong creeping red fescue
  • SR 5130 Chewings fescue
  • Shoreline slender creeping red fescue
  • SR 3150 hard fescue