Mine Illumination and Solid-State Lighting. Dr. John J. Sammarco NIOSH Pittsburgh Research Laboratory. Agenda. Why is lighting important? Age and vision History of lighting Lighting safety & accidents High brightness light emitting diodes (HB LEDs) NIOSH lighting research.
Dr. John J. Sammarco
NIOSHPittsburgh Research Laboratory
Mining…“the most difficult lighting environment in the world”
Illumination Engineering Society of North America, 2003.
The percentage of accidents declines as illuminance is increased in industrial (non-mining) work areas
Source (Walton et al., 2005)
Candle holders with candles
Oil wick lamps improved safetyby containing open flames. Costswere also lower, and minersfound them easier to use thancandles.
Photos: Royal BC Museum, British Columbia, Canada, http://www.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/
The transition to helmet-mountedlighting began with the introductionof the carbide lamp.
Photo: Royal BC Museum, British Columbia, Canada, http://www.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/
Quotation: Where the Sun Never Shines, Priscilla Long, Paragon House, New York, 1989.
The introduction of theincandescent lamp eliminatedconcerns about openflames within the mine.
The light from a small, steadilyburning incandescent filamentwas much more controllablethan the light from an openflame. Enclosed within adirectional reflector, it becamethe standard, unchanged tothis day.
Photos: Royal BC Museum, British Columbia, Canada, http://www.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/, Cape Breton Mine Museum, www.minersmuseum.com
LEDs are semi-conductors; they don't have a filament that will burn out. They are illuminate by the movement of electrons in a semiconductor.
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