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Mine Illumination and Solid-State Lighting. Dr. John J. Sammarco NIOSH Pittsburgh Research Laboratory. Agenda. Why is lighting important? Age and vision History of lighting Lighting safety & accidents High brightness light emitting diodes (HB LEDs) NIOSH lighting research.

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mine illumination and solid state lighting
Mine Illumination and Solid-State Lighting

Dr. John J. Sammarco

NIOSHPittsburgh Research Laboratory

agenda
Agenda
  • Why is lighting important?
  • Age and vision
  • History of lighting
  • Lighting safety & accidents
  • High brightness light emitting diodes (HB LEDs)
  • NIOSH lighting research
why look at mine lighting
Why look at mine lighting?

Mining…“the most difficult lighting environment in the world”

Illumination Engineering Society of North America, 2003.

why look at mine lighting4
Why look at mine lighting?
  • Miners depend heavily on visual cues to spot hazards
  • Aging workforce
  • Accidents
age effects on vision
Age Effects on Vision
  • Night vision decreases with age
    • Smaller pupil
    • Eye less able to adapt to light
    • Fewer rod receptors
    • Cloudy eye lens
age effects on vision6

Average miner 43 yrs old

40% less light than 20 yrs old

Age Effects on Vision

Yellowing of Lens(age in years)

Degradation of lens decreases effective light level and effective contrast (due to scatter)

why look at mine lighting7
Why look at mine lighting?
  • Improved lighting may help miners avoid accidents:
    • Slip/trip/falls
    • Falls of ground
    • Striking/pinning
  • An MSHA study of metal/nonmetal mining concluded that current lighting systems are inadequate.
safety lighting
Safety & Lighting

The percentage of accidents declines as illuminance is increased in industrial (non-mining) work areas

Source (Walton et al., 2005)

a brief history of lighting
A Brief History of Lighting

Candle holders with candles

slide10

Oil wick lamps improved safetyby containing open flames. Costswere also lower, and minersfound them easier to use thancandles.

Oil Lamps

Photos: Royal BC Museum, British Columbia, Canada, http://www.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/

slide11

The transition to helmet-mountedlighting began with the introductionof the carbide lamp.

Carbide lamps

Photo: Royal BC Museum, British Columbia, Canada, http://www.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/

Quotation: Where the Sun Never Shines, Priscilla Long, Paragon House, New York, 1989.

slide12

The introduction of theincandescent lamp eliminatedconcerns about openflames within the mine.

The light from a small, steadilyburning incandescent filamentwas much more controllablethan the light from an openflame. Enclosed within adirectional reflector, it becamethe standard, unchanged tothis day.

Incandescent Lights

Photos: Royal BC Museum, British Columbia, Canada, http://www.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/, Cape Breton Mine Museum, www.minersmuseum.com

light spectrum
Light Spectrum
  • White light from LEDs
    • Shorter wavelenghts
    • Bluish-white light
    • Better depth perception
    • Better color rendering
    • Better visual performance
lighting technologies
Lighting technologies
  • Lower specular color temperatures indicate a yellowish light;
  • higher temperatures indicate a whiter light.
slide19

Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

LEDs are semi-conductors; they don't have a filament that will burn out. They are illuminate by the movement of electrons in a semiconductor.

Luminaires

LED’s

slide20

Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

  • Advantages:
  • Lower power requirements
  • Long Life (>50,000 hours)
  • Small size
  • Sturdy
  • “White, shorter wavelength” light
project scope
Project Scope

Underground lighting:

  • Cap lamp (coal)
  • Preblast lighting (metal/nonmetal)
  • Machine lighting (coal)
slide24

Cap Lamps

Additional Personal lighting

LED Cap Lamp2 lb. battery, 5 year LED life

5 lb. battery

preblast lighting
Preblast Lighting
  • inspect roof & back
  • loading of explosives
specific aim summary
Specific aim summary
  • Does the color (spectral power distribution) from white LEDs:
    • Improve visual performance?
    • Reduce glare?
  • Can advantages of LEDs (small, robust, high efficiency, etc)enable new designs to:
    • Improve visual performance?
    • Reduce glare?
    • Realize new safety applications?