measuring and managing translation and transaction exposure l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Measuring and Managing Translation and Transaction Exposure PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Measuring and Managing Translation and Transaction Exposure

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 35

Measuring and Managing Translation and Transaction Exposure - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 310 Views
  • Uploaded on

Measuring and Managing Translation and Transaction Exposure. Chapter 9. PART I. ALTERNATIVE MEASURES OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE EXPOSURE: Accounting and Economic Risk. I. ALTERNATIVE MEASURES A. TYPES 1. Accounting Exposure:

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Measuring and Managing Translation and Transaction Exposure' - Olivia


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
part i alternative measures of foreign exchange exposure accounting and economic risk
PART I. ALTERNATIVE MEASURES OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE EXPOSURE: Accounting and Economic Risk
  • I. ALTERNATIVE MEASURES
  • A. TYPES
  • 1. Accounting Exposure:
  • arises when reporting and consolidating financial statements require conversion from subsidiary to parent currency
  • (difficult to hedge an event that occurred in the past)
  • 2. Economic Exposure:
  • arises because unexpected exchange rate changes alter the value of future revenues and costs.
accounting exposure
Accounting Exposure
  • Accounting Exposure =
  • Transaction risk + Translation risk
how accounting exposure arises
How Accounting Exposure Arises
  • Translation Risk

United States

Japan

Headquarters’

Consolidated

Financials

£

£

Subsidiary Financials

Subsidiary Financials

¥

$

£

Germany

Subsidiary Financials

alternative measures of foreign exchange exposure
ALTERNATIVE MEASURES OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE EXPOSURE
  • C. Economic Exposure
  • = Transaction Exposure +Operating Exposure
  • Operating Exposure defined:
  • arises because exchange rate
  • changes alter the value of future revenues and expenses.
part ii alternative currency translation methods
PART II.ALTERNATIVE CURRENCY TRANSLATION METHODS
  • I. FOUR METHODS OF TRANSLATION
  • A. Current/Noncurrent Method
  • 1. Current accounts use current exchange rate for conversion.
  • 2. Income statement accounts use
  • average exchange rate for the period.
alternative currency translation methods
ALTERNATIVE CURRENCY TRANSLATION METHODS
  • B. Monetary/Nonmonetary Method
  • 1. Monetary accounts use current
  • rate
  • 2. Pertains to
  • - cash
  • - accounts receivable
  • - accounts payable
  • - current portion long term debt
alternative currency translation methods8
ALTERNATIVE CURRENCY TRANSLATION METHODS
  • 3. Nonmonetary accounts
  • - use historical rates
  • - Pertains to
  • inventory
  • fixed assets
  • long term investments
  • 4. Income statement accounts
  • - use average exchange rate for the period.
alternative currency translation methods9
ALTERNATIVE CURRENCY TRANSLATION METHODS
  • C. Temporal Method
  • 1. Similar to monetary/nonmonetary
  • method.
  • 2. Use current method for inventory.
slide10
D. Current Rate Method
  • all statements use current exchange rate for conversions.
part iii statement of financial accounting standards no 8
PART III.STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS NO. 8
  • I. FASB NO. 8
  • A. Uniform conversion rules established
  • B. Temporal method
  • C. Translation gains or losses
  • 1. Reported on income statement
  • 2. Result: net income greatly affected by exchange rate volatility and subsequent uncertainty.
part iv statement of financial accounting standards no 52
PART IV.STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS NO. 52
  • I. FASB NO. 52
  • A. Dissatisfaction with FASB No. 8:
  • true profitability often disguised by exchange rate volatility.
statement of financial accounting standards no 52
STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS NO. 52
  • D. Translation Gains or Losses:
  • 1. Recorded in separate equity account on balance sheet.
  • 2. Known as cumulative translation adjustment account.
  • 3. Located in the equity section.
statement of financial accounting standards no 5214
STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS NO. 52
  • E. New Distinction under FASB No. 52:
  • functional v. reporting currency
  • 1. Functional currency
  • for foreign subsidiary:
  • the currency used in the primary
  • economic environment in
  • which it operates.
  • 2. Reporting currency :
  • the currency the parent firm uses to
  • prepare its financial statements.
statement of financial accounting standards no 5215
STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS NO. 52
  • F. When Functional = Reporting Currencies are the Same
  • 1. If foreign subsidiary’ operations are direct extension of parent firm
  • e.g. Hong Kong assembly plant
  • which sells all its products in the U.S.
  • market.
statement of financial accounting standards no 5216
STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS NO. 52
  • When Functional = Reporting Currencies are the Same (con’t)
  • 2. During hyperinflations in the subsidiary countries
  • Brazil, 1992
  • Hyperinflation is defined as a cumulative inflation rate of 100% over a three-year period.
part vi accounting practice and economic reality
PART VI.ACCOUNTING PRACTICE AND ECONOMIC REALITY
  • I. Accounting v. Economic Exposure
  • measurement of exchange rate risk indicates
  • major difference exists.
  • A. Accounting exposure
  • reflects past decisions of the firm.
  • B. Economic exposure
    • Focuses on future impact of exchange rate changes.
part iii designing a hedging strategy
PART III.DESIGNING A HEDGING STRATEGY
  • I. DESIGNING A HEDGING STRATEGY
  • A. Strategies
  • a management objective
  • B. Hedging’s basic objective:
  • reduce/eliminate volatility of
  • earnings as a result of exchange rate changes.
designing a hedging strategy
DESIGNING A HEDGING STRATEGY
  • C. Hedging exchange rate risk
  • 1. Is a cost-center
  • 2. Should be evaluated as a purchase of insurance.
designing a hedging strategy22
DESIGNING A HEDGING STRATEGY
  • D. Centralization is key
  • 1. Important aspects:
  • a. Degree of centralization
  • b. Responsibility for its development
  • c. Implementation
  • 2. Maximum benefits accrue from
  • centralizing policy-making, formulation, and implementation.
part ii managing transaction exposure
PART II. MANAGING TRANSACTION EXPOSURE
  • I. METHODS OF HEDGING
  • A. Risk shifting
  • B. Currency risk sharing
  • C. Currency collars
  • D. Cross-hedging
  • E. Exposure netting
  • F. Forward market hedge
  • G. Foreign currency options
managing transaction exposure
MANAGING TRANSACTION EXPOSURE
  • A. RISK SHIFTING
  • 1. home currency invoicing
  • 2. zero sum game
  • 3. common in global business
    • 4. firm will invoice exports in strong currency, import in weak currency
  • 5. Drawback:
    • it is not possible with informed customers or suppliers.
managing transaction exposure25
MANAGING TRANSACTION EXPOSURE
  • B. CURRENCY RISK SHARING
  • 1. Developing a customized hedge contract
  • 2. The contract typically takes the form of a Price Adjustment Clause, whereby a base price is adjusted to reflect certain exchange rate changes.
the zone
The Zone

Take no actions

$1.50/£

$1.60/£

Take no action

managing transaction exposure27
MANAGING TRANSACTION EXPOSURE
  • B. CURRENCY RISK SHARING (con’t)
  • 3. Parties would share the currency risk beyond a neutral zone of exchange
  • rate changes.
  • 4. The neutral zone represents the currency range in which risk is not shared.
managing transaction exposure28
MANAGING TRANSACTION EXPOSURE
  • C. CURRENCY COLLARS
  • 1. Contract
  • bought to protect against currency
  • moves outside the neutral zone.
  • 2. Firm would convert its foreign
  • currency denominated receivable
  • at the zone forward rate.
managing transaction exposure29
MANAGING TRANSACTION EXPOSURE
  • D. CROSS-HEDGING
  • 1. Often forward contracts not available
  • in a certain currency.
  • 2. Solution: a cross-hedge
  • - a forward contract in a related currency.
  • 3. Correlation between 2 currencies is
  • critical to success of this hedge.
managing transaction exposure30
MANAGING TRANSACTION EXPOSURE
  • E. EXPOSURE NETTING
  • 1. Protection can be gained by selecting
  • currencies that minimize exposure
  • 2. Netting:
  • MNC chooses currencies that are not
  • perfectly positively correlated.
  • 3. Exposure in one currency can be
  • offset by the exposure in another.
part iv managing translation exposure
PART IV.MANAGING TRANSLATION EXPOSURE
  • I. MANAGING TRANSLATION EXPOSURE
  • A. Choices faced by the MNC:
  • 1. Adjusting fund flows
    • altering either the amounts or the currencies of the planned cash flows of the parent or its subsidiaries to reduce the firm’s local currency accounting exposure.
managing translation exposure
MANAGING TRANSLATION EXPOSURE
  • 2. Forward contracts
    • reducing a firm’s translation exposure by creating an offsetting asset or liability in the foreign currency.
managing translation exposure33
MANAGING TRANSLATION EXPOSURE
  • 3. Exposure netting
    • a. offsetting exposures in one currency with exposures in the same or another currency
    • b. gains and losses on the two currency positions will offset each other.
managing translation exposure34
Managing Translation Exposure
  • B. Basic hedging strategy for reducing translation exposure:
    • 1. increasing hard-currency(likely to appreciate) assets
    • 2. decreasing soft-currency(likely to depreciate) assets
    • 3. decreasing hard-currency liabilities
    • 4. increasingsoft-currency liabilities
managing translation exposure35
MANAGING TRANSLATION EXPOSURE
  • How to increase soft-currency liabilities
      • reduce the level of cash,
      • tighten credit terms to decrease accounts receivable,
      • increase LC borrowing,
      • delay accounts payable