Dynamic Assessment: Integrating Assessment and Teaching to Understand and Promote Development in a Second Language. Matthew E. Poehner ([email protected]) Center for Advanced Language Proficiency Education and Research (CALPER) The Pennsylvania State University.
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Matthew E. Poehner ([email protected])Center for Advanced Language Proficiency Education and Research (CALPER) The Pennsylvania State University
S: enceinte! Enceinté, uh Samuel Rebecca a dit qu’elle ne comprend pas pourquoi il était enceinte mais la
pregnant! Pregnant, uh Samuel Rebecca said that she doesn’t understand why he was pregnant but the
M: Rebecca a dit? Sorry
S: Rebecca a dit que elle ne sss (...) sa, elle ne sait pas she did not know elle ne sait pas pourquoi
Rebecca said that she doesn’t know she did not know she does not know why
M: Well actually elle ne sait pas is present tense
S: it’s present tense which is wrong
M: because you said she did not know so that would be past tense
S: the past tense elle ne su pas* that’s wrong (...)
M: were you looking for imparfait or passé composé?
S: (...) it’s imparfait
M: okay so you would use the form of savoir—
S: elle ne savait pas
she didn’t know
S: I forgot it’s savoir, elle ne savait pas pourquoi il il était dans sa situation aussi mais elle était…
she didn’t know why he he was in his situation also but she was…
Imagine that we have examined two children and have determined that the mental age of both is seven years. This means that both children solve tasks accessible to seven-years-old. However, when we attempt to push these children further in carrying out the tests, there turns out to be an essential difference between them.
With the help of leading questions, examples, and demonstrations, one of them easily solves test items taken from two years above the child’s level of [actual] development. The other solves test items that are only a half-year above, his or her level of [actual] development.
(Vygotsky 1956: 446-447, cited in Wertsch 1985: 68)
From the point of view of their independent activity they are equivalent, but from the point of view of their immediate potential development they are sharply different. That which the child turns out to be able to do with the help of an adult points us toward the zone of the child’s proximal development.
This means that with the help of this method, we can take stock not only of today’s completed process of development, not only the cycles that are already concluded and done, not only the processes of maturation that are completed; we can also take stock of processes that are now in the state of coming into being, that are only ripening, or only developing
(Vygotsky 1956: 447-448; cited in Wertsch 1985: 68)
- Secondary interactants may also benefit from exchanges between primary interactants; vicarious responses as in Ohta (2001); (also Lantolf & Yanez-Prieto 2003)
T: ¿Tiene dos orejas * café?
it has two *brown ears?
V: (looks at the cube again and points at it twice with his finger) sí dos orejas (pause) *café
yes two *brown ears
T: ‘Café’ es correcto pero ¿dos orejas café?
‘brown’ is correct but two brown ears?
V: (no response, turns his body to face the class, looks at cube then out at class and back to cube)
T: ¿Cuántas orejas?
how many ears?
V: tiene dos orejas
it has two ears
(long pause, points at the image on the cube, then looks at teacher)
(looks out to the class, then back to the teacher)
(then looks back at the cube)
(murmuring from another student of camera)
T: shhh (directed to the student)
T: Hay un problema (pause) con la palabra ‘café’
there is a problem (pause) with the word ‘brown’
(no response from Vicente but a girl in the class says “oh” and raises her hand)
T: (looks to the girl and then back to Vicente) ¿Es *café o cafés?
Is it *brown or brown?
T: Sí muy bien tiene dos orejas cafés muy bien excelente Vicente
Yes very good it has two brown ears very good excellent Vicente
T: okay ¿cuál animal es?
what animal is this?
G: uh I don’t get this one
T: clase ¿quién puede ayudarle? ¿ cuál animal es?
class who can help her what animal is this?
(several students raise hands to volunteer)
T: uhhhh ¿Josué?
J: la lechuza
T: la lechuza
G: uh la lechuza tiene (inaudible) or…?
the owl has (inaudible) or…?
G: uh (pause) ¿*dos ala gris? (looks to teacher) wai-wai-wait ¿*dos alas gris?
*two gray wing? *two gray wings?
T: gooood ¿*alas gris?
T: excelente muy bien Gabriela
excellent very good Gabriela
T: (looking out to the class) por favor un voluntario más
one more volunteer please
(several students raising hands) Amora gracias
Amora thank you
(Amora comes to the front of the room, takes the cube and tosses it)
T: ¿ Cuál animal es?
What animal is it?
A: La alpaca
A: um la alpaca tiene dos ojos (pause) uh negros?
the alpaca has two black eyes?
T: perfecto dos ojos negros
perfect two black eyes
V: Tengo …. (looks at photo he is holding) dos… orejas… cafés
I have two brown ears
T: Dos orejas cafés ¿y?
two brown ears and?
(Vicente looks at the teacher)
(Vicente looks at the photo)
T: Sí, dos orejas cafés. Sí. ¿qué más? Y …. ¿De qué color es la boca? ¿o los ojos? Or [sic] las piernas
Yes, two brown ears. Yes. What else? And…What color is the mouth? Or the eyes? Or the legs?
T: Y ? y dos ojos
and? and two eyes
V: Y dos ojos
and two eyes
T: Dos ojos ¿de qué color?
Two eyes, What color?
(Vicente looks at the teacher, who points to the picture)
¿De qué color son los ojos? dos ojos…?
What color are the eyes? Two eyes…?
V: Ah, negros
T: Negros. Perfecto…