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Diatoms and Dinoflagellates. Lecture 11. Fan-Shaped Phylogenetic Tree. “Phytoplankton”. Unicells Filamentous Colonies – chains, or spheres. Algal pigments. Cocco, Dino, Diatom Overview. “Shell”, “Wood”, or “Glass” Houses armor the cell and protect from predation/environ

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phytoplankton
“Phytoplankton”
  • Unicells
  • Filamentous
  • Colonies – chains, or spheres
cocco dino diatom overview
Cocco, Dino, Diatom Overview
  • “Shell”, “Wood”, or “Glass” Houses armor the cell and protect from predation/environ
  • Coccos are small open ocean
  • Dinos are warmer waters/summer
  • Diatoms are cooler waters/winter
  • Diatoms are the “grass of the sea and the estuary”
coccolithophores
Coccolithophores
  • Division Haptophyta = Prymnesiophyta
  • 500 spp extant, many more fossil spp
  • 0.2 – 2 mm diameter (pico – nanno)
  • Biflagellate or coccoid unicells
  • Cell wall of calcareous scales
  • Chl a + c; carotenoids
  • Warm and tropical
  • Emiliania huxleyi
slide7

B.

= coccolithophores

“shell” house

  • Very small cells (2-20um)
  • Calcified scales armor cell

Major group of open ocean phytoplankton

http://oceanography.tamu.edu/Quarterdeck/QD5.2/qdhome-5.2.html

some coccolithophores
Some Coccolithophores

Prymnesiales

Isochrysidales

Coccosphaerales

Pavlovales

slide9

Calcidiscus

Emiliania huxleyi

Pontosphaera

diatoms
Diatoms
  • Division Heterokontophyta, Class Bacillariophyceae
  • 1400-1800 spp marine, >100’000 spp total
  • 2um-2mm (nanno - netplankton)
  • Unicellular, often in colonies
  • Cell wall siliceous
  • Chl a, c, B-carotene, fucoxanthin, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin
  • Centric (plankton) vs Pennate (benthic, epiphytic)
  • Temperate and cold waters
ecological roles
Ecological roles
  • Marine phytoplankton
  • Periphyton (aufwuchs)
  • Grow on plants (epiphytes), rocks (epilithic), sand grains (epipelic), or on sediments (epipsammic)
  • “grass of the sea” – 20-25% of global primary production.
  • REQUIRE SILICON
  • Well represented in fossil record – “diatomaceous earth”
cell wall reproduction
Cell wall & reproduction
  • Frustule – upper epitheca, lower hypotheca
  • Girdle divides the two thecae
  • Bilateral, radial, or irregular symmetry
  • Asex cell division: parental theca is new epitheca, results in succesive size reduction of 1 of the 2 daughter lines.
  • Size increase by swelling after sex. gamete production -> auxospore (resting cyst). Happens when cell <1/3 of original size.
slide19

Pleurosigma

BENTHIC CELLS – NEAR SHORE

OCEANIC CELLS – OFF SHORE

Diatoms are extremely important primary producers:“grass of the sea”!

or centrales biddulphiales
Or Centrales (=Biddulphiales)
  • Centric diatoms – “planktonic”
  • 3 suborders:
    • Coscinodiscineae (8 families): Thalassiosira, Skeletonema, Melosira, Coscinodiscus
    • Rhizosoleniineae (1 family): Rhizosolenia, Pseudosolenia
    • Biddulphiineae (5 families): Chaetoceras, Lithodesmium, Odontella
slide21

Melosira

Thalassiosira

Skeletonema

Cyclotella

Actinoptychus

Chaetoceras

or pennales bacillariales
Or Pennales (=Bacillariales)
  • Pennate diatoms – “benthic”
  • Raphe = fissure along apical axis. Used for locomotion; cytoplasm acts as a belt moving cell forward.
  • 2 suborders:
    • Fragilariineae – araphid (4 families): Striatella, Fragilaria, Thalassionema, Thalassiothrix
    • Bacillarineae – raphid (4 families): Navicula, Bacillaria, Nitzschia, Pseudo-nitzschia

http://www.dnr.state.md.us/bay/cblife/algae/diatom/index.html

slide23

Pseudo-nitzschia

Raphoneis

Cylindrotheca

Thalassionema

Asterionellopsis

slide25
Sullivan, MJ, CA Montcreiff, AE Daehnick 1991. Primary Production Dynamics of Epiphytic Algae in Mississippi Seagrass Beds. MASGC-91-009

Sullivan, MJ, CA Montcreiff 1993. Trophic Importance of Epiphytic Algae in Mississippi Seagrass Beds. MASGP-92-018

Sullivan, MJ, DJ Wear 1996. Effects of Water-Column Enrichment on the Production Dynamics of 3 Seagrass Species and their Epiphytic Algae. MASGP-93-023

slide27

Sawgrass Diatoms

Mangrove Diatoms

http://serc.fiu.edu/periphyton/

dinoflagellates
Dinoflagellates
  • Division Pyrrhophyta = Dinophyta
  • 2000 spp
  • Sizes: 10um-1mm
  • Biflagellate unicellular, some filaments
  • Cell has thecal plates (upper & lower)
  • Chl a, c; B-carotene, peridinin, diadinoxanthin, fucoxanthin, diatoxanthin
  • Red tides (HABs); ciguatera
  • Pfisteria hysteria…
  • Zooxanthellae in Corals/Anemones
  • Warmer seas and/or summer blooms
ecological roles30
Ecological roles
  • Oceanic and estuarine phytoplankton
  • Protists that “captured” brown algal symbionts
  • Autotrophs, auxotrophs (req vitamins), heterotrophs (>50% spp)! -> phageotrophic (ingest organisms) and parasitic (feed off host)
  • Produce potent neurotoxins: Red tides, ciguatera, paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP)
  • Zooxanthellae symbiotic in corals, jellyfish, protists (forams, ciliates, radiolarians)
flagellae and cell walls
Flagellae and Cell walls
  • Desmokont = 2 anterior flagellae
  • Dinokont = 2 flagellae in grooves – transverse tinsel flagellum in cingulum, posterior flagellum in sulcus.
  • Move in forward corkscrew motion at 1-2m hr-1
  • Upper epitheca, lower hypotheca. Shedding of theca = ecdysis. Regrows second half of same size (no decreasing size series).
  • Theca of polysaccharide plates (cellulose, mannose, galactose) and membranes.
slide33

C.

Prorocentrum minimum

Dinokont cell

Desmokont cell

taxonomy of dinos
Steidinger (1997)

13 orders:

Prorocentrales

Dinophysiales

Gymnodiniales

Suessiales

Ptychodiscales

Noctilucales

Lophodiniales

Brachydiniales

Gonyaulacales

Peridiniales

Blastodiniales

Syndiniales

Phytodiniales

Van den Hoek (1995)

12 orders:

Gymnodiniales

Gloeodiniales

Thoracosphaerales

Phytodiniales

Dinotrichales

Dinameobidales

Noctilucales

Blastodiniales

Syndiniales

Peridiniales

Dinophysiales

Prorocentrales

Taxonomy of Dinos

8 of 12/13 orders are same

order gymnodiniales
Unarmored dinokont cell with distinct cingulum and sulcus.

3 families:

Gymnodinium (200+spp), Polykrikos (5spp),Warnowia (25 spp)

Order Gymnodiniales
order suessiales gymnodiniales
Coccoid cells living as symbionts. Thinly armored, transitional between “naked” and armoured cells

1 fossil + 1 extant family:

Symbiodinium (25spp)

S. microadriaticum

Order Suessiales (Gymnodiniales)
order noctilucales
Large free-living unarmored cells, many vacuoles, flagella reduced or absent

3 families:

Kofoidinium (5 spp), Leptodiscus (5 spp),Noctiluca (1 sp)

Order Noctilucales

http://dinos.anesc.u-tokyo.ac.jp/plankton/list.htm

order peridiniales
Armored dinokonts or varied form. Plate tabulation is diagnostic.

May include Or Gonyaulacales

Protoperidinium (250 spp), Ceratium (125 spp), Gonyaulax (100 spp), Gambierdiscus toxicus

Order Peridiniales
order dinophysales
Laterally flattened cells with dinokont flagellar orientation and premedian cingulum.

3 families:

Amphisolenia (50spp), Dinophysis (100spp),Phalacroma (100 spp)

Order Dinophysales
order prorocentrales
Armored, biflagellate cells with desmokont (anterior) flagellar insertion. No cingulum or sulcus

1 family: Prorocentrum(50spp), Mesoporos (10spp)

Order Prorocentrales
toxic marine dinos
Toxic Marine Dinos
  • Only about 60 of 2000 species
  • Most are photosynthetic estuarine/neritic (near shore) forms
  • Probably produce benthic, sexual resting stages (cysts)
  • Capable of producing blooms or single spp – exclude other plankton
  • Bioactive water- or lipid-soluble chemicals that are cytolytic, hemolytic, hepatotoxic, or neurotoxic
gom k brevis monitoring
GoM K. brevis monitoring

September 12, 1995 at North Lido Beach

http://isurus.mote.org/~pederson/phyto_ecol.phtml

slide46

http://www.cop.noaa.gov/stressors/extremeevents/hab/welcome.htmlhttp://www.cop.noaa.gov/stressors/extremeevents/hab/welcome.html

http://www.ncddc.noaa.gov/habsos/Mapping/

harmful algal blooms hab
Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB)
  • Blooms of marine algae which produce:
    • Toxic effects to organisms (and humans)
    • Physical impairment of fish/shellfish
    • Nuisance conditions from odor, discoloration
    • Severe oxygen depletion or benthic overgrowth
  • GEOHAB and ECOHAB programs

http://www.cop.noaa.gov/stressors/extremeevents/hab/current/fact-ecohab.html

phytoplankton monitoring network
Phytoplankton Monitoring Network
  • http://www.chbr.noaa.gov/PMN/index.htm
  • Sample every 2 weeks using a 20um net for 3 minutes.
  • Identify cells at 100x under microscope
  • Record number in approx 1ml sample on gridded microscope slide.
  • Enter data to online database.
types of hab events
Types of HAB events
  • Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP) caused by Gymnodinium breve = Karenia brevis along GoM coasts
  • Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) caused by Alexandrium spp in New England, Pacific (northern CA – Canada, Alaska)
  • Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) caused by Pseudo-nitzschia (NW, Atl and GoM)
ciguatera fish poisoning
Ciguatera (fish poisoning)
  • illness caused by eating tropical fish that contain toxins bioaccumulated from benthic dino: Gambierdiscus toxicus
  • may experience nausea, vomiting, and neurologic symptoms such as tingling fingers or toes.
  • may find that cold things feel hot and hot things feel cold.
  • Symptoms usually go away in days or weeks but can last for years.

http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ciguatera/default.htm

slide56

Pfisteria life-cycle – Litaker et al 2002

http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/groups/niehs/science/pfiesteriacontent.htm

http://www.vims.edu/pfiesteria/Biblio.html

http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/botany/Faculty/jburkholder/jburkholder.html

http://www.newsobserver.com/102/story/428625.html

slide58
Assessing Eutrophication Dynamics: Neuse River Modeling and Monitoring Program (ModMon)www.marine.unc.edu/neuse/modmon
pfisteria or low do and fungi
Pfisteria or low DO and fungi?

The NC Hog Industry: The Smell Of Money

10 Mio Hogs in 1998 in Neuse Basin!

You decide…