Chapters 10-12. Social Stratification and Political Organization. Norms. Laws. Social Control. Exists to ensure a certain degree of social conformity Some people may resist conformity. Most non-state societies have a comparatively high degree of personal security…why?.
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Social Stratification and
RAID TO CAPTURE
FIERCE MALE BABIES FAVORED
Ways societies deal with abnormal behavior and conflict:
Social Contract - a public contract where people agree to band together for some purpose - often highly structured in the realm of what we call "politics“
Politics - the spatial aspect of social force
Shamans: Part-time religious, healing, or magic specialists
who would break
Sodality: A non-kin group or association within a society organized around kinship groups
Societies place people in categories. Social groups relate differently to each other depending on their status.
Four caste categories
A cultural universal
Can be gender and race segregated
Institutional relationships (e.g. prison)
Usually between social equals
Sometimes based on shared story-telling
“We conclude that the concept of “race” has no validity as a biological category in the human species. Because it homogenizes widely varying individuals, it impedes research and understanding of the true nature of human biological variations.”
AAA Statement on Race, 1996
Big Man: A local entrepreneur who successfully mobilizes and manipulates wealth on behalf of his group in order to hold feasts and enhance his status and rank relative to other leaders in the region.
He has no formal authority or power, nor does he necessarily have more wealth.
Armed conflict between groups of people who constitute separate territorial teams or political communities