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Chapter 16. Making It: Supervision in the Community. Overview of the Post release Function. Community Supervision Revocation The Structure of Community Supervision Agents of Community Supervision The Community Supervision Bureaucracy Residential Programs

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Chapter 16

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chapter 16
Chapter 16

Making It: Supervision in the Community

overview of the post release function
Overview of the Post release Function
  • Community Supervision
    • Revocation
  • The Structure of Community Supervision
    • Agents of Community Supervision
    • The Community Supervision Bureaucracy
  • Residential Programs

The Experience of Post release Life

  • The Strangeness of Reentry
    • Supervision and Surveillance
    • The Problem of Unmet Personal Needs
  • Barriers to Success
  • The Parolee as “Dangerous”
  • Post Release Supervision
    • How Effective it is?
    • What Are it’s Prospects
conditions of release
“conditions of release”
  • restrictions placed on parolees’ conduct that must be obeyed as a legally binding requirement of being released
  • the cancellation or rescission of parole, accompanied by the return of the offender to prison, for either:
    • the commission of a new crime; or
    • a technical violation (failing to comply with the conditions of parole)
    • revocations:
      • most revocations occur when parolee is arrested on a serious charge or cannot be located by the parole officer
      • total failure rates: from 25 to 50%
      • failure rate highest in 1st year after release
stages of revocation proceeding
stages of revocation proceeding

probable cause?

return to prison?

determination of probable cause to believe that violation has occurred

is violation severe enough to warrant return to prison? or should offender remain on parole, possibly with new conditions?

  • notified of charges
  • informed of evidence
  • be heard
  • present witnesses
  • confront witnesses


should offender remain on parole, possibly with new conditions?

factors affecting parole outcome
factors affecting parole outcome

parole officer





supervision process 3 stages
supervision process: 3 stages
  • Carl Klockars: the relationships among the parole officer, the parole bureaucracy, & the offender affect parole success.
  • relationships develop over 3 stages:
    • definition
      • officer & parolee define nature of their relationship, including rules, expectations, and styles of behavior
    • development
      • role of bureaucracy lessens as officer & parolee work through challenges
    • rapport
      • officer & parolee develop rapport, communication, mutual trust
factors affecting parole outcome10
factors affecting parole outcome

parole officer

parole environment



Note changes in positive(+) & negative(-) attachments between forces as we move through the 3 stages of the supervision process.

stage 1 definition
Stage 1: definition

parole officer

parole environment




Officer has strongest attachment to bureaucracy, weak attachment to parolee. Parolee maintains little/no attachment to bureaucracy throughout!

stage 2 development
stage 2: development

parole officer

parole environment




Officer attachment to bureaucracy is replaced by stronger attachment to parolee.

stage 3 rapport
stage 3: rapport

parole officer

parole environment




Officer attachment to bureaucracy is replaced by strongest attachment to parolee.

dual role of parole officer
dual role of parole officer

social worker



  • surveillance
  • search
  • enforcement
  • arrest
  • suspend parole
  • initiate revocation
  • find job
  • restore family ties
  • service referral
  • intermediary
  • advocate
parole officer role orientation daniel glaser
parole officer role orientation(Daniel Glaser)

emphasis on control

emphasison assistance

factors limiting parole officers approaches to cases
factors limiting parole officers’ approaches to cases

“organizational constraints”


philosophy & policy of organization

community correctional center
“community correctional center”
  • a small group-living facility for offenders, especially those recently released from prison
    • programs often use renovated homes or small hotels
    • usually provide counseling & drug treatment
    • impose strict curfew restrictions
two types of work release
two types of “work release”
  • work release center
    • a type of community correctional center that allows offenders to work in the community during the day while residing in the center during non-work hours
      • originated in Wisconsin, 1913
  • work furlough
    • offenders work and live at home during the week and return to the prison for the weekend
offender s difficulties with post release experience
offender’s difficulties with post-release experience

harsh realities

strangeness of re-entry

unfamiliar world

friends? relationships?

new decisions

barriers to success

close monitoring

civil disabilities

job impediments

unmet personal needs




civil disabilities
civil disabilities
  • right to vote
    • 3/4 states return the right after some period
    • 10 states permanently disenfranchise felons
    • 1.4 million Afr.-Amer. men (13% ) cannot vote
    • = 1/3 of black men in Alabama, Florida
  • right to hold public office
    • 21 states return the right after discharge from all forms of custody
    • 19 permanently restrict the right
  • other rights variously restricted
    • jury service
    • holding position of public trust (e.g., most government jobs)
employment difficulties
employment difficulties
  • especially problematic, because of
    • legal restrictions
    • public distrust of ex-convicts
    • unrealistic expectations of parolees
    • some prison-trained jobs are restricted
      • e.g., barber, beautician, nurse
  • occupations require ‘restricted’ licenses
  • jobs exclude people of ‘moral turpitude’
  • available jobs are low-paying
solutions to civil disabilities
solutions to civil disabilities?

civil remedies

expungementof criminal record

a legal process that is supposed to result in removal of official record of conviction; in fact, records are kept.

process is cumbersome & inadequate.


an act of clemency by executive branch of state or federal government excusing an offense & absolving offender from consequences of crime

three purposes of pardon
three purposes of “pardon”
  • given only rarely, to:
    • remedy miscarriage of justice
    • remove stigma of conviction’
    • mitigate a penalty
successful supervision
successful supervision

structured approaches to case management

rather than leaving supervision style to officers’ discretion

key elements

offer tangible services

rather than mere surveillance

  • job training
  • money to find job, transportation
  • monitor progress
  • standardize intake interview
  • monitor classification
  • monitor case planning
  • evaluate officers
4 steps to successful re entry shadd maruna
4 steps to successful re-entry (Shadd Maruna)
  • get substance abuse under control
    • drug treatment, testing
    • get a job
      • money for bills
      • offers security
    • get community support system
      • church, organized athletics
    • get new sense of “who I am”
      • old “me” is gone; new person has taken over