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Using Haskell. Dan Vasicek 2010 – 02 – 21 . What is Haskell? (Theoretical Aspects). Haskell is a computer programming language In particular, it is a polymorphically statically typed , lazy , purely functional language, quite different from most other programming languages

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Using Haskell


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    1. Using Haskell Dan Vasicek 2010 – 02 – 21

    2. What is Haskell? (Theoretical Aspects) • Haskell is a computer programming language • In particular, it is a polymorphicallystatically typed, lazy, purely functionallanguage, quite different from most other programming languages • The language is named for Haskell Brooks Curry, whose work in mathematical logic serves as a foundation for functional languages • Haskell is based on the lambda calculus, hence the symbol, λ, is used as part of the Haskell logo

    3. What is Haskell? (Practical Aspects) • Two commands for your command line environment • ghc – Glasgow Haskell Compiler: produces executable code from Haskell source • ghci – Glasgow Haskell Command line Interpreter: • An environment for the execution of Haskell commands • Special commands for manipulating, & querying the environment • Debugging commands • Foreign language (e.g. C++) interface

    4. Why Consider Haskell? • Produces concise, provably correct code • Short code development time • Interactive and compilable • Built-in Concurrency and Parallelism • A high level modern programming language that is a result of 20 years of development • Supported by a large library of packaged modules • Supplied with debuggers and profilers • Freely available (Open source, $0, complete development package)

    5. Installation of Glasgow Haskell Platform • Download most recent version • Stable versions from: http://hackage.haskell.org/platform • Windows version is 54 Megabytes (Feb 1, 2010) • Mac OS X is 106 Megabytes • Source tarball is 1.28 Megabytes • Linux X86 & X86-64 ~ 72 Megabytes • http://haskell.org/ghc/download_ghc_6_10_4.html#x86linux • Other Haskell Compilers - e.g. http://repetae.net/computer/jhc/ (Efficient)

    6. Example GHCi Session - Strings

    7. Glasgow Haskell Platform • GHC 6.10.4 - The state-of-the-art optimzing compiler for Haskell. • GHCi 6.10.4 - A bytecode interpreter and interactive environment for Haskell • The GHCi debugger - An interactive, imperative-style debugger for Haskell • The GHC parallel runtime - a multicore language runtime, featuring lightweight threads, thread sparks, affinity control, and a parallel garbage collector • The Happy parser generator - Happy 1.18.4, a yacc-like parser generator for Haskell • The Alex lexer generator - Alex 2.3.1, a lex-like lexer generator for Haskell • The Haddock Documentation tool - generator Haddock 2.4.2 • The Cabal package distribution tool - cabal-install 0.6.2, download and install new Haskell packages from Hackage • The hsc2hs foreign language binding tool - a preprocessor for binding Haskell to C - (e.g. Access to HDF5, FITS, … data) • Unicode built-in

    8. Editor Syntax highlighting and formatting support • Emacs Haskell Mode • VIM “Superior Haskell Interaction Mode” (SHIM)

    9. List of Available Packages • http://hackage.haskell.org/packages/hackage.html • Currently there are 1800 Haskell Packages available • Compare to 9033 Python packages available • See the appendix of these slides for a listing of some Haskell Packages

    10. Haskell Syntax – Some References • http://www.haskell.org/onlinereport/syntax-iso.html - general syntax description • http://www.haskell.org/onlinereport/standard-prelude.html - standard functions • http://www.cs.chalmers.se/Cs/Grundutb/Kurser/d1pt/d1pta/ListDoc - Standard list functions

    11. Simple Syntax • Strongly Typed • Simple arithmetic • Arbitrary precision integers • String manipulation • List manipulation such as sorting

    12. Positionally Sensitive Notation • The next character following any of the keywords where, let, or of is what determines the starting column for the declarations in the where, let, or case expression being written • Be sure that the starting column is further to the right than the starting column associated with the immediately surrounding clause (otherwise it would be ambiguous). The "termination" of a declaration happens when something appears at or to the left of the starting column associated with that binding form. (Haskell observes the convention that tabs count as 8 blanks; thus care must be taken when using an editor which may observe some other convention.)

    13. Type Signatures (::) • 5  :: Integer                         •  'a' :: Char • ”abc” :: [Char] (is a list of characters) • (+1) :: Integer -> Integer  {e.g. (+1) 1 =2)} •   [1,2,3] :: [Integer]   - List of Integers                 •   ('b',4) :: (Char,Integer) - Pair

    14. Simple Arithmetic Using GHCi • Prelude> 3+7 • 10 • Prelude> 2*8 • 16 • Prelude> 100/25 • 4.0

    15. Arbitrary Precision Integers in GHCi • Prelude> 2^200 • 1606938044258990275541962092341162602522202993782792835301376 • 61 digits (Same result as Mathematica) • Prelude> 1/3 • 0.3333333333333333 • Sixteen significant figures • log(10^300)/log(10) = 299.9999999999994

    16. List Operations • “abc” is [‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’] • “abc”!!0 is ‘a’ list item • “abc”!!2 is ‘c’ • “ab” ++ “cd” is “abcd” Concatination • head “abc” is ‘a’ car • tail “abc” is “bc” cdr • take 2 “abc” is “ab” • take 1 “abc” is “a” is [‘a’] • drop 1 “abc” is “bc” • reverse(“abcdefg”) is “gfedcba” • length(“abc”) is 3

    17. Shorthand for lists of integers • [1..4]  [1,2,3,4] • [1,3..10]  [1,3,5,7,9] • [1,3..]  [1,3,5,7,9,11, … infinite sequence

    18. More List Operations • map (/2) [1, 2, 3] is [.5, 1.0, 1.5] • map sin [1, 2, 3] is [.84, .91, .14] • foldr (+) 0 [1, 2, 3, 4] is 10 (Σn=1n=4n) • foldr (*) 0 [1..4] is 0 • foldr (*) 1 [1,2,3,4] is 24 (4!) • filter (4<) [1, 2, 8, 7] is [8,7] • partition (<5) [1..8] returns • ([1,2,3,4],[5,6,7,8])

    19. Define a simple function • let sq(x) = x*x • sq(9) • 81 • sq 5 • 25 • sq is a function that is no more special than * or + (more on the next slide)

    20. Redefine basic operations • let x + y = x*y • Then 4+5=20

    21. Type and definition of “map”using patterns • map                       :: (a->b) -> [a] -> [b]map f  []                =  []map f (x:xs)             =  f x : map f xs • map f :: [a]  [b]

    22. GHCi Commands • The “:” operator tells GHCi to expect a command • :? Or : Gives a summary of : commands • :browse – will list the current environment • :browse <module name> – will list the contents of a module • :show – will display the syntax of the show command • :show bindings – will display current bindings • :! Cmd – pass Cmd to the shell • E.g. :!dir – will display the current directory (in DOS)

    23. Example of the “:show” command • :show bindings • sq :: (Num a) = > aa = _ • Which says that sq is a function of numbers that takes a number, returns a number, and prints the value of the number

    24. Creating a Haskell Script • :set editor "C:\Program Files\Vim\vim72\gvim.exe“ • Sets the editor to be gvim • :edit fac.hs • Creates a file called fac.hs containing • fac(0) = 1 • fac(n) = n*fac(n-1) • :load fac • Compiles and loads fac.hs into the environment

    25. Executing “fac” script • fac(3) • 6 • fac(10) • 2628800 • The function “fac” is called “primitive recursive”

    26. Validation of “fac” • by induction • fac(0)=1 • fac(1) =1 • fac(2)=2 • Fac(100) is a big number and is probably correct

    27. Ackermann’s Function • Is not primitive recursive • Definition ------------------------------------------ • ack(0,n) = n+1 • ack(m+1, 0) = ack(m,1) • ack(m,n) = ack(m-1,ack(m,n-1)) • Program Validation----------------------------- • ack(0,0) = 1 √ • ack(2,0)= 5 √ • ack(3,3) = 61 √

    28. Inquire about the environment • :show modules • Main ( fac.hs, interpreted)

    29. GHCi Configuration • When GHCi starts it executes config files in order: 1. .ghci file 2. appdata/ghc/ghci.conf where appdata is • C:/Documents and Settings/user/Application Data (on MS Win) • $HOME/.ghc/ghci.conf (on Unix) 3. $HOME/ghci.conf

    30. Creating a GHCi configuration file • :edit .ghci • Type a configuration script for example: • :set editor "C:\Program Files\Vim\vim72\gvim.exe“ • Save this file in the default GHCi directory • To find the default directory see the results of the • :!dir command on windows • :!pwd on Linux • Now gvim will be the default editor instead of Notepad

    31. Begin Functional Programming Segment • Fundamental concepts • Functional Programming • Sessions and scripts • Polymorphic types • Order of evaluation • Patterns • Lazy evaluation • Side Effects • Simple data types • Numbers • Lists • Trees • Efficiency • Evaluation order • Lazy Evaluation • Space • Abstract Data Types • Infinite lists • Monads • Parsing • Examples 

    32. Functional Programming • A functional program is a function that solves a problem • That function may involve several subsidiary functions and is described in a notation that obeys normal mathematical principles • The result of the function is the solution of the problem and is disjoint from the input to the function

    33. Fundamental Concepts • Polymorphic Static types • length(list) – The list can have elements of any type. So, length is polymorphic. It can be applied to lists of characters, numbers, tuples, lists, … • length [] = 0 • length (x:xs) = 1+ length xs • Where [] is a pattern that means the empty list • And x:xs is a pattern that means x is the first element of the input list and xs is the rest of the list • Pattern matching is an important component of Haskell

    34. Polymorphism • head                    :: [a] -> a • head (x:xs)             =  xtail                    :: [a] -> [a]tail (x:xs)             =  xs • Both fail if presented with an empty list • Both work for lists of anything, even lists of empty lists and are Polymorphic • Examples of the Hindley-Milner type system

    35. Order of Evaluation • Order of evaluation (simplification, or reduction) is not specified in a functional program • sq(3+4) could be simplified as • sq(7) 7*7  49 • (3+4)*(3+4) 7*(3+4) 7*749 • Both orders produce the same result • The independence of the result from the order is a characteristic feature functional programs

    36. Lazy Evaluation • Let three x = 3 • Let infinity = infinity +1 • Now simplify the expression • three infinity • If we choose to simplify infinity first we get • Three(infinity +1 +1 +1 and so on) • which does not terminate • If we choose to simplify three first, • three infinity = 3 • the expression terminates in one step • Some simplification orders may terminate while others do not • In GHCi three infinity =3

    37. Lazy Evaluation • Guarantees termination whenever termination is possible

    38. Side Effects • A pure function simply returns a value • A pure function has no internal state • A pure function cannot modify the input data • In GHCi values may be displayed by the interactive environment • Monadic programming allows functional programs to mimic imperative programs • Monads provide a way to execute “Commands” and display values

    39. Basic Data Types • Bool • Char • Enumerations • Tuples

    40. Unicode in Haskell • Haskell 98 specification says that Haskell supports Unicode • http://blog.kfish.org/2007/10/survey-haskell-unicode-support.html • http://code.haskell.org/utf8-string/

    41. Unicode table

    42. Unicode Experiment • Create a list of byte codes for some Hebrew characters: • hebrew = ['\n', '\x05d0', '\x05d1', '\x05d2', '\x05d3', '\x05d4', '\x05d5', '\x05d6', '\x05d7', '\x05d8', '\x05d9','\x5da','\x5db','\x5dc','\x5de','\x5df', '\x05e0', '\x0e1', '\x05e2', '\x05e3', '\x05e4', '\x05e5', '\x05e6', '\x05e7', '\x05e8', '\x05e9' , '\x05ea', '\x05eb', '\x05ec', '\x05ed', '\x05ee', '\x05ef' , '\n','\n‘] • putStrhebrew • Result on next slide

    43. Result of “putStr hebrew”

    44. Unicode Greek The letters printed by my program are in the order αβΓΠΣσμτΦΘΩδ And this does not agree with the order in the above table.

    45. Encoding Problem • Hexadecimal ‘\x05d0’ = ‘\1488’ decimal • So, my coding is not the problem

    46. Quick Sort Algorithm • qsort [] = [] • qsort ( x:xs) = qsort (filter (<= x) xs) ++ • qsort (filter ( > x) xs) • Inefficient! Calls filter twice for xs • Can use (length (x:xs))2memory

    47. Begin Appendix • Details of available modules • Comparison to other languages • List of some Haskell functions

    48. List of Packages • http://hackage.haskell.org/packages/archive/pkg-list.html

    49. Example: Algorithm package • binary-search library: Binary and exponential searches • Binpack library: Common bin-packing heuristics. • DecisionTree library: A very simple implementation of decision trees for discrete attributes. • Diff library: O(ND) diff algorithm in haskell. • dom-lt library: The Lengauer-Tarjan graph dominators algorithm. • edit-distance library and programs: Levenshtein and restricted Damerau-Levenshtein edit distances • funsat library and program: A modern DPLL-style SAT solver • garsia-wachs library: A Functional Implementation of the Garsia-Wachs Algorithm • Graphalyze library: Graph-Theoretic Analysis library. • GraphSCC library: Tarjan's algorithm for computing the strongly connected components of a graph.

    50. Default Packages – provided by the downloaded system (283 functions) • ghc-prim • integer - Arbitrary Precision Integer Arithmetic • base – basic data types and functions • 31 data types • rts