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Haskell. Chapter 8. Input and Output. What are I/O actions? How do I/O actions enable us to do I/O? When are I/O actions actually performed?. Review of Functional Language characteristics. Haskell is purely functional

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haskell

Haskell

Chapter 8

input and output
Input and Output
  • What are I/O actions?
  • How do I/O actions enable us to do I/O?
  • When are I/O actions actually performed?
review of functional language characteristics
Review of Functional Language characteristics
  • Haskell is purely functional
  • Provide definitions of what things are, Haskell figures out the steps to execute
  • Functions are not allowed to have side effects
  • If a function is called two times with the same parameters, it must return the same result (referential transparency)
  • Helps us reason about our programs (e.g., don’t have to trace entire program to see if some other function is messing with your variables!)
slide4
I/O
  • But what about showing the result? That changes the state of the screen… a side effect!
  • What to do???
  • Separate the “impure” parts of the program from the “pure” parts.
our first program
Our first program

main = putStrLn "Hello World!"

At the command prompt

  • ghc –make helloworld
  • helloworld (windows) or ./helloworld (nix)
what s putstrln
What’s putStrLn?
  • Prelude> :t putStrLn
  • putStrLn :: String -> IO ()
  • Prelude> :t putStrLn "hello, world"
  • putStrLn "hello, world" :: IO ()
  • putStr take a String, returns an IO action
  • An IO action does some action with a side effect (e.g., read input or write output) and also yields a result
  • The value of putStrLn is just ()
when are i o actions performed
When are I/O actions performed?
  • Must give it a name of main and then run the program
  • Can glue several I/O actions into one.
  • Don’t usually specify a type declaration for main – it has signature of main :: IO something where something is a concrete type, for example:
    • *Main> :t main
    • main :: IO ()
  • getLine is an IO action that yields a String
  • getLine is impure
    • *Main> :t getLine
    • getLine :: IO String
so what exactly is an io action
So what exactly is an IO action??
  • You can think of it as a box with feet.
  • Goes out into the world and does something
  • Maybe brings something back
  • Use <- to “open” the box and get the value
  • We can only take it out when we’re inside another IO action
  • This won’t work!!
    • nameTag = "Hello, my name is " ++ getLine
how do the pure and impure parts interact
How do the pure and impure parts interact?

main2 = do

putStrLn "Hello, what's your name?"

name <- getLine

putStrLn $ "Zis is your future: " ++ tellFortune name

tellFortune name

| name == "Lucky" = name ++ ",you will win a million dollars"

| otherwise = name ++ ", you will have no money but be happy"

  • *Main> main2
  • Hello, what's your name?
  • Lucky
  • Zis is your future: Lucky,you will win a million dollars
  • tellFortune is just a regular function!
  • *Main> tellFortune "Cyndi"
  • "Cyndi, you will have no money but be happy"
how does this work in ghci
How does this work in GHCi?
  • *Main> putStrLn "howdy pardner"
  • howdy pardner
  • In GHCi, it performs the IO action and then prints it to the terminal using putStrLn
bindings
Bindings

import Data.Char

main3 = do

putStrLn "What's your first name? "

firstName <- getLine

putStrLn "What's your last name? "

lastName <- getLine

let bigFirstName = map toUpperfirstName

let bigLastName = map toUpperlastName

putStrLn $ "hey " ++ bigFirstName ++ " "

++ bigLastName

++ ", how are you?“

  • <- binds values from IO actions to names
  • let binds pure expressions to names
more details
More details

main4 = do

line <- getLine

if null line

then return ()

else do

putStrLn $ reverseWords line

main4

reverseWords :: String -> String

reverseWords = unwords . map reverse . words

  • remember: if must always have else
  • return() is not like other languages. return makes an I/O action out of a pure value (i.e., takes a value and “wraps” it in an IO action box). Return does not end execution.
return example
Return example

main5 = do

return ()

return "HAHAHA"

line <- getLine

return "BLAH BLAH"

return 4

putStrLn line

  • Creates lots of I/O actions that are not used
more on return
More on return

main6 = do

a <- return "Hello"

b <- return "World"

putStrLn $ a ++ " " ++ b

  • More likely to use let in this scenario… but it illustrates how return works
  • Common to use return when last statement of do doesn’t have desired result. So create a return that yields the desired result, put it at the end
  • Also used when we need an IO action that doesn’t do anything (like the return () in main4)
other useful functions
Other useful functions
  • putStr – like putStrLn, but no newline
  • putChar – takes a character and returns an IO action that will print it to the terminal - putChar 'a'
  • print – takes a value that’s an instance of Show (i.e., we know how to represent as string), applies show to stringify it, outputs string to terminal - print "haha"
slide16
when
  • when – syntactic sugar. Takes Bool & I/O, returns I/O
  • when :: Monad m => Bool -> m () -> m ()

import Control.Monad

main7 = do

input <- getLine

if (input == "SWORDFISH")

then putStrLn input

else return ()

main8 = do

input <- getLine

when (input == "SWORDFISH") $ do

putStrLn input

sequence
sequence
  • sequence takes a list of I/O actions, returns an I/O action that performs those actions one after the other

main9 = do

a <- getLine

b <- getLine

c <- getLine

print [a,b,c]

main10 = do

rs <- sequence [getLine, getLine, getLine]

print rs

slide18
mapM
  • Common scenario: map a function that returns an I/O action (e.g., print) over a list and then sequence it. mapM does this for us, mapM_ does it but throws away the result.
  • *Main> mapM print [1,2,3]
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • [(),(),()]
  • *Main> mapM_ print [1,2,3]
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
play and share
Play and Share?
  • Let’s start on the homework