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Trail of Tears. Grade 4 Social Studies Online. Blueprint Skill: Era 4 - Expansion and Reform (1801-1861) . Read and interpret a passage about the Trail of Tears. Cherokee culture….

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trail of tears

Trail of Tears

Grade 4

Social Studies Online

blueprint skill era 4 expansion and reform 1801 1861
Blueprint Skill: Era 4 - Expansion and Reform (1801-1861) 
  • Read and interpret a passage about the Trail of Tears.
cherokee culture
Cherokee culture…
  • Before contact, Cherokee culture had developed and thrived for almost 1,000 years in the southeastern United States--the lower Appalachian states of Georgia, Tennessee, North and South Carolina, and parts of Kentucky and Alabama.
background information
Background information
  • Since first contact with European explorers in the 1500s, the Cherokee Nation had been recognized as one of the most progressive among American Indian tribes.
cherokee life until 1710
Cherokee life until 1710…
  • Life of the traditional Cherokee remained unchanged as late as 1710, which is marked as the beginning of Cherokee trade with the whites.
frontier contact
Frontier contact…
  • The period of frontier contact from 1540-1786, was marked by white expansion and the cession of Cherokee lands to the colonies in exchange for trade goods
cherokee interaction
Cherokee interaction…
  • After contact, the Cherokees acquired many aspects of the white neighbors with whom many had intermarried. Soon they had shaped a government and a society that matched the most "civilized" of the time.
sequoyah
Sequoyah
  • Cherokee culture continued to flourish with the invention of the Cherokee alphabet by Sequoyah in 1821.
cherokee migration
Cherokee migration…
  • Migration from the original Cherokee Nation began in the early 1800s as Cherokees wary of white encroachment moved west
a government decision
A government decision…
  • The white communities turned on their Indian neighbors and the U.S. Government decided it was time for the Cherokees to leave behind their farms, their land and their homes
indian removal act
Indian Removal Act
  • In 1830 the Congress of the United States passed the "Indian Removal Act." Although many Americans were against the act, most notably Tennessee Congressman Davy Crockett, it passed anyway.
the bill became law
The bill became law
  • President Jackson quickly signed the bill into law. The Cherokees attempted to fight removal legally by challenging the removal laws in the Supreme Court and by establishing an independent Cherokee Nation.
court ruling
Court ruling…
  • In 1832, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Cherokee on the issue in Worcester v. Georgia. In this case Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the Cherokee Nation was sovereign, making the removal laws invalid. The Cherokee would have to agree to removal in a treaty. The treaty then would have to be ratified by the Senate.
a divided nation
A divided nation…
  • By 1835 the Cherokee were divided and despondent. Most supported Principal Chief John Ross, who fought the encroachment of whites starting with the 1832 land lottery.
the will of a minority
The will of a minority
  • However, a minority (less than 500 out of 17,000 Cherokee in North Georgia) followed Major Ridge, his son John, and Elias Boudinot, who advocated removal.
removing the cherokees
Removing the Cherokees…
  • The Treaty of New Echota, signed by Ridge and members of the Treaty Party in 1835, gave Jackson the legal document he needed to remove the First Americans.
ratification of the treaty
Ratification of the treaty…
  • Ratification of the treaty by the United States Senate sealed the fate of the Cherokee. Among the few who spoke out against the ratification were Daniel Webster and Henry Clay, but it passed by a single vote.
the removal of indians began
The removal of Indians began…
  • In 1838 the United States began the removal to Oklahoma, fulfilling a promise the government made to Georgia in 1802.
general wool protested the move
General Wool protested the move….
  • Ordered to move on the Cherokee, General John Wool resigned his command in protest, delaying the action.
the invasion of the cherokee nation
The invasion of the Cherokee nation….
  • His replacement, General Winfield Scott, arrived at New Echota on May 17, 1838 with 7000 men. Early that summer General Scott and the United States Army began the invasion of the Cherokee Nation.
marching to oklahoma
Marching to Oklahoma….
  • In one of the saddest episodes of our brief history, men, women, and children were taken from their land, herded into makeshift forts with minimal facilities and food, then forced to march a thousand miles.
loss of life
Loss of life
  • Under the generally indifferent army commanders, human losses for the first groups of Cherokee removed were extremely high.
reorganization of cherokees into smaller groups
Reorganization of Cherokees into smaller groups
  • John Ross made an urgent appeal to Scott, requesting that the general let his people lead the tribe west. General Scott agreed. Ross organized the Cherokee into smaller groups and let them move separately through the wilderness so they could forage for food.
arriving in oklahoma
Arriving in Oklahoma
  • Although the parties under Ross left in early fall and arrived in Oklahoma during the brutal winter of 1838-39, he significantly reduced the loss of life among his people. About 4000 Cherokee died as a result of the removal.
the trail where they cried
The Trail Where They Cried
  • The route they traversed and the journey itself became known as "The Trail of Tears" or, as a direct translation from Cherokee, "The Trail Where They Cried" ("Nunna daul Tsuny").
april 1839
April 1839
  • Cherokees build houses, clear land, plant and begin to rebuild their nation.
eastern band of cherokee indians
Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians
  • Those who were able to hide in the mountains of North Carolina or who had agreed to exchange Cherokee citizenship for U.S. citizenship later emerged as the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians of Cherokee, N.C. The descendants of the survivors of the Trail of Tears comprise today's Cherokee Nation with membership of more than 165,000.
resources
Resources
  • The Trail of Tears
  • Cherokee Messenger