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The Introduction. C507 Scientific Writing Session 7. Before You Even Write. Decide on Authorship Know the manuscript requirements Assemble all your data. Authorship. What is a fair claim to authorship? Responsibility Content. Four Criteria for Authorship.

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the introduction

The Introduction


Scientific Writing

Session 7

before you even write
Before You Even Write
  • Decide on Authorship
  • Know the manuscript requirements
  • Assemble all your data
  • What is a fair claim to authorship?
    • Responsibility
    • Content
four criteria for authorship
Four Criteria for Authorship
  • 1. AN author should have generated at least a part of the intellectual content of the paper: initially conceived of the study it reports, if it is a research paper or case report; or developed the plan for the paper, if it is a review or editorial.
four criteria for authorship1
Four Criteria for Authorship
  • 2. An author should have collected reported data (including clinical observations) and interpreted them for the paper’s message.
four criteria for authorship2
Four Criteria for Authorship
  • 3. An author should have taken part in writing the paper or revising its intellectual contents.
four criteria for authorship3
Four Criteria for Authorship
  • 4. An author should be able to defend publicly in the scientific community that intellectual content of the paper for he or she take responsibility.
justification for authorship
Justification for Authorship
  • Basis: Genesis of the paper (research report
    • Legitimate: Development of a testable hypothesis
    • Not legitimate: Suggestion that legitimate author(s) work on the problem
justification for authorship1
Justification for Authorship
  • Basis: Genesis of the paper (case report)
    • Legitimate: First notice of previously unobserved phenomenon
    • Not legitimate: Physician’s routine referral care, service
justification for authorship2
Justification for Authorship
  • Genesis of the paper (review)
    • Legitimate: Critical interpretations of reviewed papers and assembled data
    • Not legitimate: Suggestion that the review be written
justification for authorship3
Justification for Authorship
  • Basis: Research efforts
    • Legitimate: Development of study design
    • Not legitimate: Suggestion of use of standard study design
justification for authorship4
Justification for Authorship
  • Basis: Research efforts
    • Legitimate: development of new method (laboratory, field, or statistical) or critical modification of previous method
    • Not legitimate: Observations and measurements by routine methods
    • Legitimate: Personal collection and analysis of data.
justification for authorship5
Justification for Authorship
  • Basis: Clinical studies
    • Legitimate: New diagnostic and therapeutic efforts
    • Not legitimate: “Routine” diagnostic and therapeutic efforts that would have occurred even if the paper had not been written
justification for authorship6
Justification for Authorship
  • Basis: Interpretation of findings
    • Legitimate: Explanatory insight into unexpected phenomena
    • Not legitimate: Routine explanations such as EKG or radiographic reports
justification for authorship7
Justification for Authorship
  • Basis: Writing of the paper
    • Legitimate: Writing of the first draft or critically important revision of concept in a later draft
    • Not legitimate: Solely criticisms of drafts and suggestions for revision of presentation, not ideas
justification for authorship8
Justification for Authorship
  • Basis: Responsibility for content
    • Legitimate: Ability to justify intellectually the conclusions of the paper, including defense of the evidence and counterevidence weighed in reaching the conclusions
    • Not legitimate: Solely attesting to accuracy of individual facts reported.
a challenge
A Challenge
  • One of the most difficult problems in authorship arises with research reports by large, multi-center, cooperative teams
a final comment on authorship
A Final Comment on Authorship
  • Early discussion on authorship has another practical value. When a decision has been reached, the to-be authors can then decide on how to divide the work of writing the paper.
manuscript requirements
Manuscript Requirements
  • Read the darn Instructions to Authors!
assembling evidence
Assembling Evidence
  • All papers support their conclusions with evidence:
    • Observational data
    • Case descriptions
    • Photographs
    • Citations of published papers
    • Etc.
evidence for the research paper
Evidence for the Research paper
  • Papers to be cited
    • Papers read before and while drawing up the research proposal
    • Papers that came to your attention during the research
    • Papers found in a final search immediately before you decide to report the research in a paper
evidence for the research paper1
Evidence for the Research paper
  • Descriptions of study designs and methods:
    • Papers to be cited for methods
    • Grant application or protocol approved and reviewed
evidence for the research paper2
Evidence for the Research paper
  • Copies of signed informed consent forms
  • Table of data: analyzed data, with statistical assessments
  • Case summaries
  • Preliminary graphs, with statistical assessments if necessary
  • Illustrations: radiographs, EKGs, preliminary sketches for artwork
evidence for the case report
Evidence for the Case Report
  • Clinic records and case summaries from those records
  • Tables of data: data illustrating clinical course; data from special studies
  • Preliminary graphs of same
  • Papers to cite
  • Photographs and permissions; radiographs, EKG, and similar records
  • Needed for:
    • Previously published items
    • Photographs
    • Letters and other communications
    • For acknowledgements
and now
And Now
  • You finally get to sit down and start on the Introduction
  • Of course, you already:
    • Chose the title
    • Know your authorship
    • Have the abstract ready
  • Now start writing