Resolved inner disks around herbig ae be stars near ir interferometry with pti
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Resolved Inner Disks around Herbig Ae/Be Stars: Near-IR Interferometry with PTI. Josh Eisner Collaborators: Ben Lane, Lynne Hillenbrand, Rachel Akeson, and Anneila Sargent. Eisner et al. 2003, ApJ, 598, 1341 Eisner et al. 2004, ApJ, submitted. Ringberg Castle, 2004. Circumstellar Disks.

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Resolved inner disks around herbig ae be stars near ir interferometry with pti

Resolved Inner Disks around Herbig Ae/Be Stars: Near-IR Interferometry with PTI

Josh Eisner

Collaborators: Ben Lane, Lynne Hillenbrand, Rachel Akeson, and Anneila Sargent

  • Eisner et al. 2003, ApJ, 598, 1341

  • Eisner et al. 2004, ApJ, submitted

Ringberg Castle, 2004


Circumstellar disks
Circumstellar Disks

  • Disks linked to star and planet-formation

  • Accretion mechanism: IMF, stellar rotation, magnetic properties, outflows

  • Disk properties (e.g., temperature, density, geometry) dictate planetary properties

  • Relation to proto-solar nebula

Artist’s conception of TW Hya Disk


Disks around haebes

  • Herbig Ae/Be stars:

    • Higher-mass analog of T Tauris: 2-10 M

    • Emission lines,variability, excess IR and mm emission

  • SED models: thin accretion disks (Hillenbrand et al. 1992), flared disks (Chiang & Goldreich 1997), puffed up inner disk walls (Dullemond et al. 2001)

  • Forbidden emission lines (Corcoran & Ray 1997)

  • Ha spectropolarimetry (Vink et al. 2002)

  • Resolved mm emission: flattened structures on 100 AU scales with Keplerian rotation

  • Strong evidence from new near-IR interferometry

  • Herbig Ae/Be stars:

    • Higher-mass analog of T Tauris: 2-10 M

    • Emission lines,variability, excess IR and mm emission

  • SED models: thin accretion disks (Hillenbrand et al. 1992), flared disks (Chiang & Goldreich 1997), puffed up inner disk walls (Dullemond et al. 2001)

  • Forbidden emission lines (Corcoran & Ray 1997)

  • Ha spectropolarimetry (Vink et al. 2002)

  • Resolved mm emission: flattened structures on 100 AU scales with Keplerian rotation

  • Strong evidence from new near-IR interferometry

  • Herbig Ae/Be stars:

    • Higher-mass analog of T Tauris: 2-10 M

    • Emission lines,variability, excess IR and mm emission

  • SED models: thin accretion disks (Hillenbrand et al. 1992), flared disks (Chiang & Goldreich 1997), puffed up inner disk walls (Dullemond et al. 2001)

  • Forbidden emission lines (Corcoran & Ray 1997)

  • Ha spectropolarimetry (Vink et al. 2002)

  • Resolved mm emission: flattened structures on 100 AU scales with Keplerian rotation

  • Strong evidence from new near-IR interferometry

  • Herbig Ae/Be stars:

    • Higher-mass analog of T Tauris: 2-10 M

    • Emission lines,variability, excess IR and mm emission

  • SED models: thin accretion disks (Hillenbrand et al. 1992), flared disks (Chiang & Goldreich 1997), puffed up inner disk walls (Dullemond et al. 2001)

  • Forbidden emission lines (Corcoran & Ray 1997)

  • Ha spectropolarimetry (Vink et al. 2002)

  • Resolved mm emission: flattened structures on 100 AU scales with Keplerian rotation

  • Strong evidence from new near-IR interferometry

  • Herbig Ae/Be stars:

    • Higher-mass analog of T Tauris: 2-10 M

    • Emission lines,variability, excess IR and mm emission

  • SED models: thin accretion disks (Hillenbrand et al. 1992), flared disks (Chiang & Goldreich 1997), puffed up inner disk walls (Dullemond et al. 2001)

  • Forbidden emission lines (Corcoran & Ray 1997)

  • Ha spectropolarimetry (Vink et al. 2002)

  • Resolved mm emission: flattened structures on 100 AU scales with Keplerian rotation

  • Strong evidence from new near-IR interferometry …

< 0.1-1 AU

(Dullemond, Dominik, & Natta 2001)

(Vink et al. 2002)

(Corcoran & Ray 1997)

(Mannings & Sargent 1997)

Disks Around HAEBEs

  • Herbig Ae/Be stars:

    • Higher-mass analog of T Tauris: 2-10 M

    • Emission lines,variability, excess IR and mm emission

  • SED models: thin accretion disks (Hillenbrand et al. 1992), flared disks (Chiang & Goldreich 1997), puffed up inner disk walls (Dullemond et al. 2001)

  • Forbidden emission lines (Corcoran & Ray 1997)

  • Ha spectropolarimetry (Vink et al. 2002)

  • Resolved mm emission: flattened structures on 100 AU scales with Keplerian rotation

  • Strong evidence from new near-IR interferometry


Palomar testbed interferometer pti

Ds

amplitude

delay

Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI)

  • PTI observations allow large sample, good uv coverage

  • longer baselines facilitate detection of asymmetry

  • PTI components:

    • 3 telescopes each 0.4 m

      • 110 m NS oriented 20º E of N (4 mas)

      • 85 m NW oriented 81º E of N (5 mas)

      • 87 m SW baseline recently operational!

    • two apertures (A1,A2), delay lines (DL), beam combiner (BC), single-mode fiber (SMF), detector

s

DL

A2

BC

A1

SMF

Detector

DL

B


Fringe measurement v 2

System visibility from unresolved calibrators

Ds

amplitude

delay

Fringe Measurement: V2

Sky

U-V

  • I1 ~ e-ik d1 e-iwt ; I2 ~ e-k d2 e-iks•B e-iwt;IC = I1 + I2

  • P = <IC*IC> = 2+2cos(k [s•B+d1-d2])

  • Fringe Spacing: Ds = l/B (~5 mas for PTI)

  • Visibilities: V(u,v) = ∫ dx dy A(x,y) F(x,y) e-2pi(ux+vy)

    • u = Bx/l ; v = By/l

    • V is the FT of brightness distribution (van Cittert-Zernike theorem)

    • IFT: F(x,y) A(x,y) = ∫ du dv V(u,v) e2pi(ux+vy)

  • PTI measures normalized V2


Pti observations of haebes
PTI Observations of HAEBEs

  • 2.2 mm observations of 14 HAEBEs SpTyp ~ O9-F0; d~100-1000 pc

  • Fit models to PTI visibilities: uniform disk, Gaussian, ring, accretion disk with hole, flared disk with puffed-up inner wall (+star)

  • All but 2 sources (HD141569, HD158352) resolved; angular sizes ~1-6 mas.

  • Inclinations:

    • MWC 480, MWC 758, CQ Tau, VV Ser, V1685Cyg, AS 442, MWC 1080 inclined

    • AB Aur nearly face-on

    • V1295 Aql, T Ori, MWC 297 unknown

  • Puffed-up inner disk inconsistent for earliest spectral types: MWC 297, V1685 Cyg, MWC 1080

uv

sky


Pti iota data
PTI+IOTA Data

  • Some of our sample also observed by IOTA (Millan-Gabet, Schloerb, & Traub 2001)

    • K-band: AB Aur, MWC 1080

    • H-band: AB Aur, T Ori, MWC 297, V1295 Aql, V1686 Cyg, MWC 1080

  • Shorter baselines than PTI (20-40m vs. 85-110m)additional constraints on geometry

  • Larger FOV than PTI (3˝ vs 1˝) constrains incoherent emission from extended dust


SEDs

  • Inner radius, inclination from PTI data; provide inputs for SED modeling. Can probe large range of disk radii, constrain parameters including temperature, overall geometry, mass)

  • SEDs compiled from new JHK PALAO data and the literature (stellar params from published spec type & BVRI photometry)

  • 2 models:

    • geometrically thin accretion disks w/ inner holes

    • flared 2-layer disks w/ puffed-up inner walls

Trim, Tint, Tsurf

Parameters: Rin, i,

Tin,Rout,b, S, kn

T(R)  R-3/4

Parameters: Rin,i,

Tin (Rout)


Flared Passive Disks with Puffed-Up Inner Walls

Geometrically Flat Accretion Disks


Inner disk vertical structure
Inner Disk Vertical Structure

  • For later-type HAEBEs, puffed-up inner disk models better

  • Early-types are fit well by flat disk models; not at all by puffed-up inner walls

  • Different accretion mechanism?

Puffed-Up Inner Disks

Flat Inner Disks


Inner vs outer disks warping
Inner vs. Outer Disks: Warping?

PTI near-IR: i ≈ 10-20

Millimeter: i ≈ 76

Mannings & Sargent 1997



Summary
Summary

  • PTI observations of 14 HAEBEs: 12 resolved (1-6 mas), ≥7 significantly inclined

  • No significant mis-alignment of inner and outer disks

  • Different vertical disk structure for early and late spectral types

    • Flat accretion disks better for early-types

    • Flared disks w/ puffed-up inner walls for later types

    • Magnetospheric accretion in HAes vs. Equatorial accretion in HBes?



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