What do we mean by ‘referencing’? • When we use specific words or even just an idea from another author in our work, this needs to be formally acknowledged. This acknowledgement is called citing (note spelling) or referencing.
Why do I need to reference? • To acknowledge that an idea is not my own original thought • To demonstrate the range and sources of my reading • To allowthe reader to find out more about the ideas in my writing from other authors if they want to
Why reference?(2) • It allows me to find my source again easily if I want to add in more or change something • As a way of being accountable – others can check up to see if I have given the correct interpretation or bias on the original material. • It is an expected part of academic assignments
The importance of referencing • NOT to do so is called PLAGIARISM- a very serious offence in Western academic circles. • Penalties for plagiarism can include gaining zero marks for an assignment, failing a paper, or being asked to leave a tertiary institution.
How do I cite others’ ideas or words in the text itself? • To cite or make a citation means to acknowledge others’ ideas or words in my writing. • Include the author’s surname, the year of publication and, if quoting some of theiractual words, the page(s) referred to. • E.g. As Caswell (2002) states, ”quote” (p.9). • It has often been argued that ”quote” (Luther, 1992, p.47), although…
How do I cite material in the text itself? (2) • If there are TWO authors with a shared surname and the same year in your Reference List, distinguish them using their initials when citing in the text. • E.g. D. Brown (2002) asserts… • M. J. Brown (2002) believed… • Otherwise, the surname alone is normally sufficient
When referring to someone else’s idea… • When it is NOT a specific quote, but the idea belongs to someone else … • If using the author’s name as part of the sentence…just include the surname and year of publication – no page numbers are needed • e.g. Smith and Jones (2000) maintain that (+ paraphrase their idea in your own words)
Citing an author • If NOT using the author’s name as part of the sentence when you paraphrase their idea… • Put the author’s name and year of publication in brackets at the end of the sentence involved, then the full-stop • E.g. Some vehicles clearly need more careful looking after than others (Carr, 1996).
If you quote directly.. • Put short quotes (i.e. ones under 40 words) in“double inverted commas”and include a page number at the end of the reference. • E.g. “Quote”(Sanders, 1993, pp. 42-43). Note – Surname only • NB When the quotation comes at the end of a sentence, the full-stop comes outside and after the brackets (cf above)
Short quotes contd. • Quotes MUST be verbatim i.e. word for word what the author wrote. • If you leave out any words, put … to show something is missing. • If there is a spelling error, American spelling or questionable word in the quote, put [sic]- (Latin for ‘thus’) immediately after the word in question. Note the square brackets.
Longer quotes • If a quote is forty words or longer, start it on a new line, and indent as a block five spaces from the left hand margin. • It does not require quotation marks. • The full stop comes at the end of the indented quote, followed by the page number in brackets. (APA p.117)
Longer quote example • Here you type your normal paragraph as per usual. Now you want to include a quote that is over 40 words long. Here is your quote that is over 40 words long. You indent 5 spaces from the left hand side. The other side is not indented. Don’t use quotation marks. Use a full-stop at the end of the quote, BEFORE the page number in brackets. (p.45)
Quotes from the Bible • Do not include the Bible in your Reference List or Bibliography • However, you do need to cite the verse(s) you are quoting, including the version used, in the text itself the first time you quote. • E.g. “Jesus wept” (John 11:35,New International Version). • Subsequent quotes do not need the version name repeated unless you use a different one, in which case you should note it. (APA p.213)
Referencing an author who is quoted in another book or journal • Acknowledge both sources in your text • e.g. (Smith, 1987, p.88, as cited in Stricken, 1989, p.35). • In your final Reference List or Bibliography, list Stricken, not Smith, since it was the book you read. • The year and page number for ‘Smith’ may not be given
Referencing an author who has written two articles in the same year • Use ‘a’ after the date of the first one you mention in the text; ‘b’ after the second one. • E.g. Leonard (1988b) argues that... • Remember to include the ‘a’ or ‘b’ in the reference list also e.g. Leonard, L. (1988a).
Referencing a book with many authors • First time round,cite all names (up to & including 6) e.g.Brown, Cole and Black (1998) maintain that…. • Note - in the text use the full version of ‘and’ • If mentioned again, use Brown et al. e.g. Brown et al. (1998) also argue… • et al. = and others (Latin - et alii)
Referencing a book with many authors (2) • In your Reference List, write the authors as Brown, A., Cole, U., & Black, E. • NOTE the use of ‘&’ here. • NOTE the order of names is the same as on the title page of the work – they aren’t changed to become alphabetical • If there are more than six authors, only write the first 6 even in the reference list, then use et al. (APA p.209)
Referencing personal communication • This includes conversation, interviews, emails, letters, memos, phone-calls, chat room discussions, lecture notes etc. • According to R. Smith (personal communication,August 22, 2005)… • It was confirmed that students’ success rates improved (B. Norsworthy, lecture notes, January 12, 2003).
Referencing personal communication (2) • Note the way the name is put – it includes the initial(s), unlike books. • Personal communication is NOT included in your Reference List - only cited in the text (APA p.214)
What is the difference between a Bibliography and a Reference List? • A Bibliography lists every source you have explored, including ones not cited (mentioned) in your text. • A Reference List is the list of sources you use and mention in your writing. It is a subset of a Bibliography. Reference List Bibliography
When do I need to include a Bibliography? • It is required whenever you have to source material yourself • It allows your reader to see what sources you have checked out over and above the ones you cite in your text. • It allows readers to pursue their own research if they want - you help them get started!
How do I write a Bibliography/Reference list? • In abc order of authors’ surnames • The first line of each (published) author is in line with the usual margin; any subsequent lines are indented 5 spaces. Smith, R. (2003). Why I love Ireland…
How do I write a Bibliography/Reference list? (2) • Don’t use numbers or bullets when itemising your sources. • Don’t separate books from journal articles, newspaper articles, online articles etc.
Books with 1 author • 1. Author’s surname(s) + comma + his/her initials + full-stop • e.g. Brown, H.D. • Von Brummelen, H. • NOTE: List under V • If including 2 works by the same author, put the one published earlier first.
Books with 2 or more authors • Where there are 2 or more authors for one book, the second and subsequent authors’ names have their initials after their surname also. • Use & for ‘and’ • e.g. Black, A.J., & Dolton, R. • e.g. Cranwell, P., Street, R.,& Abbot, A. .
Books whose authors share the same surname • If two or more book authors have the same surname, put the one with initials or name nearer to ‘A’ first in your Bibliography. • e.g. Smith, A. • Smith, P.A. C. • Smith, R.
Edited books • Put (Ed.). for edited by (1 person) • E.g. Smith, R. (Ed.). • Include (Eds.). for multiple editors
Books – name, initials, then year • Date of publication - year only in brackets + full stop . • e.g. Smith, R. (2004).
Books – name, initials, year then the title • Type the title of the book in ITALIC script + full stop. • Hornblow, I. (1999). Playing the trumpet. • Smith, R. (2003). Life at Bethlehem Institute (2nd ed.).
Capitals in book titles • Only the first word of the title is in capital letters, unless it contains proper nouns. • The 1st word of the subtitle – usually after a colon or dash - is also capitalised. • Note this is different from when you write a title at the top of an essay or elsewhere • E.g. Life in the Bay of Plenty. • Live life to the full: Eat fruit! • (APA p.95)
Revised and reprinted editions • For Revised editions – use the new publication date. Include the edition number after the title. • E.g. Smith, R. (2003). Life at Bethlehem Institute (2nd ed.). • NOTE: ed. = edition ; 2nd, not 2nd.Neither of these are in italics. • For reprinted books – use the original date of publication – no changes to the original
Books - name, initials, year, title, then place & publisher • Place (city + state or country if needed) of publication + colon : • Name of publisher + full stop. • E.g. Smith, P. (2000). Life in Dunedin. Dunedin, New Zealand: OtagoPublications. • Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
Place & publisher contd. • Note capital letters in abbreviations for American states • Major world cities e.g. New York, Paris, London, don’t need the country as well. • Quick tip! Pl (place) comes before Pu (publisher)! WHEre before WHO
Publishers and authors • If the publisher is the same as the author (e.g. the Ministry of Education), put Author as the publisher rather than repeating the name.
A chapter in an edited book • Good, M. (2001). On the way to online pedagogy. In J. Stephenson (Ed.), Teaching and learning online (pp.165–174). Great Britain: Kogan Page. • Please note: • Italics for book - not chapter - title • Put page numbers after book title, but NOT in italics. • Initial(s) go before the name of the editor. • There is a comma after (Ed.), not the usual full stop (APA p.252)
A chapter in a non-edited book • Foster, R. (1980). The discipline of prayer. In Celebration of discipline (pp. 30 – 40). Sevenoaks, Kent: Hodder & Stoughton. OR • Foster, R. (1980). The discipline of prayer. In Celebration of discipline (chap.6). Sevenoaks, Kent: Hodder & Stoughton. Note: Use of In before the book title.
Academic journals • Author’s surname + comma + initials + full-stop e.g. Hay, D.T. • Year of publication in brackets + full stop (1945). • Title of the article in NORMAL type + full-stop e.g. How to cook goat. • Title and volume of the journal initalics+ comma e.g. Cooking for Farmers,4,
Journals (2) • Any other number (e.g. issue number) in normal print in a bracket + comma, page number(s) + full-stop • Hay, D.T. (1945). How to cook goat. Cookingfor Farmers, 4(2), 43-55. • NB No place of publication or publisher needed
Magazine articles • E.g. Love, W.E. (2003, August). Married bliss. Family Life Magazine, 30–32. • If the magazine is a weekly one, use the date as well as the month e.g. (2003, August 11). • If applicable, use the season e.g. (2003, Spring)
Newspaper articles • If no author …. • Local students lead the way. (2001, April 1). Bay of Plenty Times, p.60. • Place in Reference List / Bibliography under ‘Local’ – i.e. the 1st significant word in the title • With author - e.g. • Preston, G. (2004, April 1). Bethlehem Institute hostels on the way! Bay of PlentyTimes, pp.60-61. (APA pp.242-243)
Conference papers (unpublished) • Use as a pattern: • Archer, J. (1999). Teachers’ beliefs about successful teaching and learning in mathematics. Paper presented at the joint AARE - NZARE Conference, Melbourne, November 4-6.
A web site • To cite an entire site in the text, just give the address of the site • e.g. http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html • No more detail is required
Online document • Author’s name(s), initial(s), date of publication and name of document in italics as per books. Date when retrieved, then web address. • E.g. Cook, R. (1999). Drama in Bethlehem. Retrieved May 31, 2002, fromhttp://www.bethlehem.ac.nz/drama.html • If there is no publication date, put (n.d.). after the author’s name (= no date)
Online document with no author • The advantages of wearing glasses. (2003). Retrieved August 31, 2004, from …(include exact path here) • List under ‘T’ – the first word of the title. (APA p.274)
Online periodical • Use as a pattern • Author, A.A., Author, B.B., & Author, C.C. (2003). Title of article. (Note normal type)Title of periodical, xx, (Note title & volumenumber in italics) 22-33. (Page numbers) Retrieved month day, year, from web address. Example: Article in an Internet-only journal Wasaki, J. T., & Saver, M. J. (2002). Essay writing for tertiary students. Journal of Extension Studies, 33, 252-255. Retrieved June 2, 1999, from http://bie.org/learningcentre/index.html
Motion pictures or videos Pattern: Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D.D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title ofmotion picture in italics [Motion picture-note square brackets]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor. e.g. Tigger, I. (Producer), & Piglet, U. (Director). (2003). My friend Winnie the Pooh [Motion picture]. New Zealand: Novel Distributors.
Television broadcast or series • Pattern: • Producer, A.N. (Producer). (Date of broadcast). Title in italics [Television broadcast or Television series].City of origin: Studio or distributor. • Mischiefmaker, A. (Producer). (2003). The untold secrets of Bethlehem Institute [Television series]. Tauranga, New Zealand: Bethlehem Productions.
A Music recording Pattern: • Taupin, B. (1975). Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John]. On Captain fantastic and the brown dirtcowboy [CD]. London: Big Pig Music Limited.
Further reading • American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the APA (5th ed.). Washington: Author. • Emerson, L., & McPherson, J. (Eds.). (1997). Writing guidelines for Education students. Palmerston North: Dunmore Press. • Articles in Learning Centre files