progressions in psychomotor development l.
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Progressions in Psychomotor Development Birth through 9 years From 2 – 2.5 years A child can Jump from a height of 12” with one foot leading Jump off the floor with both feet Balance on one foot Takes short running steps on toes Throws a 9.5 ball 4-5 feet From 2.5 – 3 years A child can

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from 2 2 5 years
From 2 – 2.5 years
  • A child can
    • Jump from a height of 12” with one foot leading
    • Jump off the floor with both feet
    • Balance on one foot
    • Takes short running steps on toes
    • Throws a 9.5 ball 4-5 feet
from 2 5 3 years
From 2.5 – 3 years
  • A child can
    • Jump from a height of 18” with one foot leading
    • Stands on a walking board 6 cm. wide
    • Attempts to step while on walking board
    • Catches a 16.25 inch ball with arms straight
from 3 3 5 years
From 3 – 3.5 years
  • Child can
    • Walk backwards easily
    • Walk UP stairs alternating feet, no rails
    • Make sharp turns while running
    • Jump forward and land on both feet
    • Rises to feet from a kneeling position in a mature pattern
    • Climb on playground equipment
    • Jumps down from 8 inch elevation with both feet together
    • Demonstrates elementary hopping pattern – 1 foot
from 3 5 to 4 years
From 3.5 to 4 years
  • Child can
    • Walk down stairs, alternating feet, WITH use of rail
    • Jump from a height of 12” with feet together;
    • Performs 3 consecutive hops on preferred foot
    • Throw a tennis ball for distance (8-9 feet) using a forward stance
    • Identify body planes
    • Catches a 16.25 inch ball with elbows in front
from 4 4 5 years
From 4 – 4.5 years
  • Child can
    • Stand/balances on one foot for 4-8 seconds
    • Walk on the balance beam
    • Balance while changing direction, from the trunk
    • Walk up and down stairs WITHOUT rail, alternating feet
    • Run smoothly, at alternating speeds
    • Jump forward, 8-10 inches; running jump 22-33 inches
    • Jump over a rope 2 inches high
4 4 5 years continued
4 – 4.5 years - continued
  • Child can
    • Catch a large ball with arms flexed at the elbow
    • Throw a tennis ball overhand with trunk rotation
    • Bounce a large playground ball
    • Kick a large playground ball with accuracy
    • Ride a tricycle expertly
    • Turn a forward summersault
from 4 5 5 years
From 4.5 – 5 years
  • Child can
    • Jump backward
    • Jump over a stationary rope 4” high
    • Slide down a playground slide
    • Swing on a playground swing
from 5 5 5 years
From 5 – 5.5 years
  • Child can
    • Stand on one foot without visual feedback
    • Walk the balance beam forward, sideways and backwards
    • Run 35 feet in 10 seconds
    • Hop 45 feet in 10 seconds
    • Throw a tennis ball with trunk rotation and forward weight shift (step)
    • Catch a bounced tennis ball with hands
from 5 5 5 yrs continued
From 5 – 5.5 yrs. - continued
  • Child can
    • Hit a T-ball with a bat
    • March, keeping time to the music
    • Use skates, sled, wagon or scooter well
    • Gallop leading with both preferred and non-preferred leg
    • Kicks a soccer ball through the air a distance of 8-11.5 feet
    • Alternates feet in basic skipping movements
from 5 5 6 years
From 5.5 – 6 years
  • Child can
    • Throw a 9.5 inch ball 14-15 feet
    • Catch a 16.25 inch ball with elbows at the side of the body
from 6 to 7 years
From 6 to 7 years
  • Child can
    • Skip at an intermediate level
    • Throw a softball for distance
      • Boys - 34.1 feet
      • Girls - 19 feet
    • Walk on a balance beam 4 cm wide and 2.5 meters long in 9 seconds stepping off less than once per trial
    • Run
      • Boys - 4.2 yd/sec.
      • Girls - 4.1 yd/sec.
6 7 years continued
6 – 7 years - continued
  • Child can
    • Perform a standing broad jump
      • Boys - 37+ inches
      • Girls - 36+ inches
    • Perform a standing high jump of 8 inches
    • Kick a soccer ball in the air a distance of 10-18 feet
    • Perform 2-2 hopping pattern and skip in mature pattern ~ 6.5 yrs [Girls].
    • Hop 15 ft. on right and left feet [Boys]
6 7 years continued19
6 – 7 years - continued
  • Child can
    • Visually fixate on and pursue (track) an object through all meridia and cross the mid-line smoothly
      • while Keeping the head/neck in a fixed position
    • Can cross mid-line in gross and fine motor activities in a differentiated [smooth and easy] fashion
from 7 8 years
From 7 – 8 years
  • Child can
    • Run
      • Boys – 4.6 yd/sec.
      • Girls – 4.4 yd/sec.
    • Throw softball for distance
      • Boys – 45+ feet
      • Girls – 25+ feet
    • Perform a standing broad jump
      • Boys – 41+ inches
      • Girls – 40 inches
7 8 years continued
7 – 8 years - continued
  • Most girls can perform 3-2 hopping pattern
  • Both boys and girls Mature skip in mature fashion
from 8 9 years
From 8 – 9 years
  • Child can
    • Throw a softball for distance
      • Boys – 59 ft.
      • Girls – 34 ft.
    • Run
      • Boys - 5.1 yd/sec.
      • Girls – 4.6 yd/sec.
    • Perform a standing broad jump
      • Boys – 46+ inches
      • Girls – 46 inches
also from 8 9 years
Also from 8-9 years
  • Most boys can perform 2-2 hopping pattern
vision
VISION
  • TWO TYPES:
    • REFRACTIVE

(focal vision) …

VERSUSORTHOPTIC(related todepth perception and balance)

      • THESE ARE THE CRITICAL COMPONENTS OF VISION AND VISUAL DEVELOPMENT
slide26
The critical subcomponentsof vision and visual development

VISUAL ACUITY

REFRACTIVE

FIGURE-GROUND PERCEPTION

ORTHOPTIC

DEPTH PERCEPTION

ORTHOPTIC

VISUAL-MOTOR COORDINATION

OPTHOPTIC

slide27
Visual Acuity

- Static Vision(pick out

detail in stationary objects,

Snellen chart: 20/20)

- Dynamic Vision (pick

out detail in moving

objects)

- Developmental aspects (rapid improvement 5-7, plateau 7-8, mature 10-12)

slide28
Figure-Ground

Perception

 where

- Figure (specific object)

-Ground(background object(s))

- Developmental aspects (slow improvement 3-4, rapid improvement 4-6, mature 8-12)

  • An element of depth perception
slide29
Depth Perception judging distance

- accomplished via depth cues

- (monocular= size, texture, distance, shading etc.)

- (binocular = retinal disparity, convergence)

- Developmental aspects  (frequent errors 3-4 yrs., few errors 5-6 yrs.,rapid improvement 7-11 yrs., mature 12 yr.)

slide30
Visual-Motor Coordination the ability to coordinate vision with body

movements

- A.K.A. Object tracking& interception

- Developmental aspects  (rapid improvement 3-7 yrs., slow improvement, 7-9 yrs., mature 11-12 yrs.)

development of body image
Development of Body Image
  • Identification of Body Parts
  • Understanding the Function of Body Parts
  • Efficient Utilization of Space
  • Right-left and Bi-Lateral Discriminations during Movement Function
a child from birth through 3 can visually verbally identify these body parts
Birth 

1 year 

3 years 

Can watch the hand move

Stomach, head , parts of face, limbs, hands, fingers and toes

Objects in relation to body planes, e.g., “things are in front, to the back or to the side of ..”

A child from birth through 3 can visually/verbally identify these body parts
also a child at age 3
Also …. a child at age 3
  • Knows the words “right” and “left,” but not that they are on opposite sides of the body
a child from 5 through 7 can visually verbally identify these body parts
5 years 

6 years 

7 years 

Shoulders, elbows, knees; middle and ring fingers

Trunk appears in drawings; thighs, forearms, etc. identified

Wrists, ankles, shins, parts of limbs

A child from 5 through 7 can visually/verbally identify these body parts
left right identification 5 9 years
5 years 

6 years 

7 years 

8 years 

9 years 

Knows right and left are on opposite sides but is unable to tell which is which

Some left-right judgments made accurately

More correct right-left judgments on self and in letters, numbers etc.

Can identify the left-right of others when facing them

Can describe the left-right movements of others while watching them

Left-right identification 5 – 9 years
note critical developmental skills of prehension grasping and releasing
Note  Critical Developmental Skills of Prehension, Grasping and Releasing
  • Prehension grasping and releasing e.g. tennis ball, pencil, etc.
    • Effective grasping (9 mos.)
    • Thumb opposition (9-10 mos.)
    • Object release (18 mos.)
manipulating a writing instrument
Manipulating a Writing Instrument
  • Sequence = supination, pronation, dynamic tripod (7 yrs.)
      • Posture, hand position
stage 1
Stage 1 
  • Scribbling developing hand-eye coordination  (15-20 MOS.)
stage 2
Stage 2
  • Development of Diagrams and combinations of diagrams ~ 1-2 yrs.
stage 3
Stage 3 
  • Combine stage  basic geometric figures (spirals, crosses)  to more precise figures, e.g., circles, squares, etc. ~ 2 yrs
stage 4
Stage 4 
  • Aggregate stage  combines diagrams and figuresinto combinations (3+) resulting in more complex drawings 3/7 yrs.
stage 5
Stage 5
  • Pictorial stage  increased precision and complexity~ 8-9 yrs.
fine motor development printing and writing patterns
Fine motor development – printing and writing patterns

4 yr. olds may be able to print recognizable letters/numbers

No particular organizational pattern for numbers/letters

slide55
5-6 yrs. = name printing
    • 5 yrs. = ½ - 2” upper case letters
    • Letters become larger toward end of name
    • 6 yrs. = similar with occasional reversals – may include surname
    • By 7 letters are ~1/4 inches – lowercase letters may continue to be difficult
by 3 rd grade
By 3 rd grade
  • Single stroke letters easier (I, c, l)
  • Horizontal-vertical letters follow (E, T)
  • Letters with Slants (horizontal-vertical) follow
    • (K, B, Z)
  • Spacing (9 yrs.)