Chapter 10. Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids Biochemistry by Reginald Garrett and Charles Grisham. Essential Question.
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Nucleotides and Nucleic
Reginald Garrett and Charles Grisham
See Figure 10.1
Figure 10.1 The fundamental process of information transfer in cells. Information encoded in the nucleotide sequence of DNA is transcribed through synthesis of an RNA molecule whose sequence is dictated by the DNA sequence.
As the sequence of this RNA is read (as groups of three consecutive nucleotides) by the protein synthesis machinery, it is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein.
This information transfer system is encapsulated in the dogma:
DNA RNA protein.
Know the basic structures
Figure 10.2 (a) The pyrimidine ring system; by convention, atoms are numbered as indicated. (b) The purine ring system, atoms numbered as shown.
Know these structures too
Figure 10.10 b-Glycosidic bonds link nitrogenous bases and sugars to form nucleosides.
Figure 10.11 The common ribonucleosides—cytidine, uridine, adenosine, and guanosine. Also, inosine drawn in anti conformation.
High [Ado] promotes sleepiness. Caffeine blocks the interaction of extracellular Ado with its neuronal receptors.
The sequence of bases in one strand is complementary to the sequence of bases in the other strand.
Figure 10.21 Replication of DNA gives identical progeny molecules because base pairing is the mechanism determining the nucleotide sequence synthesized within each of the new strands during replication.
DNA contains two kinds of information:
Transcription product of DNA
Large subunit rRNA, 5S rRNA, and in eukaryotes 5.8S rRNA
Altering gene expression in response to stressful environmental situations
Why does DNA contain thymine?
Why is DNA 2'-deoxy and RNA is not?