Let s be novakian constraining task with structural mapping software
Download
1 / 66

Let's Be Novakian : Constraining Task with Structural Mapping Software - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 182 Views
  • Uploaded on

Let's Be Novakian : Constraining Task with Structural Mapping Software. Lawrie Hunter Kochi University of Technology http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/. Let's Be Novakian. Action research. Let's Be Novakian. Action research. –means “still working on it”. Let's Be Novakian.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Let's Be Novakian : Constraining Task with Structural Mapping Software' - MikeCarlo


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Let s be novakian constraining task with structural mapping software l.jpg

Let's BeNovakian: Constraining Task with Structural Mapping Software

Lawrie Hunter

Kochi University of Technology

http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/


Let s be novakian l.jpg

Let's BeNovakian

Action research


Let s be novakian3 l.jpg

Let's BeNovakian

Action research

–means“still working on it”


Let s be novakian4 l.jpg

Let's BeNovakian

Action research

–means“still working on it” or“no real data”


Background 2 passions l.jpg
BACKGROUND:2 ‘PASSIONS’

HAWW

How Academic Writing Works

(Information strategy and readability)

MAPPING

Foundation Information Structures

(Knowledge Structures)


Slide6 l.jpg

BACKGROUND: 2 ‘PASSIONS’

1. HAWW

2. MAPPING


Background 2 passions7 l.jpg
BACKGROUND: 2 ‘PASSIONS’

1. HAWW

2. MAPPING


Constructivist l2 learning task l.jpg
Constructivist L2 learning task

Open-ended and ‘expressive’ tasksfree the learner to use language that is immediately, personally relevant.

“My favorite game.”

“A day in my life.”

“How I would reduce Japan’s CO2 emissions.”


Constructivist l2 learning task9 l.jpg
Constructivist L2 learning task

Open-ended and ‘expressive’ tasksfree the learner to use language that is immediately, personally relevant.

BUT they also allow the learner to write freely in terms of -content -information structure and -rhetorical structure.


How can we present task so as to force certain language behaviors l.jpg
How can we present taskso as to forcecertain* language behaviors?

*e.g. use of certain structures

e.g. use of certain types of cohesion device

e.g. use of certain register


Slide11 l.jpg

How can we present taskso as to force certain language behaviors?Maybeinformation mapping systemsallow us to usefully presenttask content in a low-text manner.


Many information mapping systems l.jpg
Many information mapping systems

Mind mapping

Directed link maps

Hunter’s info structure maps

Horn’s argument mapping

AusThink’s argument mapping

Rationale argument mapping

RST* maps

*Rhetorical Structure Theory


Slide13 l.jpg

Clarify this study’s purpose

in terms of content:

Aim of this design process:

-to create tasks and devices that aid the TAW learner

in perceiving information structures:

-argument structure,

-knowledge structure (following Mohan (1986) and Hunter (2002)) and

-message type (central message, background information).


Slide14 l.jpg

Clarify this study’s purpose

in terms of form of language/information




Slide17 l.jpg

Analyze map styles in terms of links

pine trees

pine trees

longevity

longevity

Spatial metaphor* in human graphics:

“Down is specific, up is general”

“Down is subordinate, up is superordinate”

Metaphors We Live By

by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson

University of Chicago Press, 1980.


Slide18 l.jpg

Analyze map styles in terms of links

pine trees

pine trees

longevity

longevity



Slide20 l.jpg

Analyze map styles in terms of links

pine trees

pine trees

longevity

longevity


Slide21 l.jpg

Analyze map styles in terms of links

pine trees

pine trees

are a symbol of

is symbolized by

longevity

longevity


Slide22 l.jpg

Analyze map styles in terms of links

pine trees

pine trees

symbol of

characteristic of

longevity

longevity


Quantum levels of mapping l.jpg
Quantum levels of mapping

Argument mapping

Information structure mapping

Syntactic mapping

Grammatical mapping (pseudo)

Association mapping


Slide24 l.jpg

Tony Buzan’s mind mapping

The links are all associations

-i.e. zero granularity


Directed link maps l.jpg
Directed-link maps

http://www.inspiration.com/


Directed link novakian maps l.jpg
Directed-link Novakian* maps

*maybe Novakian...


When is a map novakian l.jpg
When is a map Novakian?

“The basic Novakian concept map...

usually starts with a general concept

at the top of the map, and then

works its way down ... to more specific concepts.

Abrams, R. An Overview of Concept Mapping. In

Meaningful Learning: A Collaborative Literature Review of Concept Mapping. Retrieved March 18, 2008 at http://www2.ucsc.edu/mlrg/clr-conceptmapping.html


When is a map novakian28 l.jpg
When is a map Novakian?

“The basic Novakian concept map...

usually starts with a general concept

at the top of the map, and then

works its way down ... to more specific concepts.

Concepts are placed in [boxes]...

Abrams, R. An Overview of Concept Mapping. In

Meaningful Learning: A Collaborative Literature Review of Concept Mapping. Retrieved March 18, 2008 at http://www2.ucsc.edu/mlrg/clr-conceptmapping.html


When is a map novakian29 l.jpg
When is a map Novakian?

“The basic Novakian concept map...

usually starts with a general concept

at the top of the map, and then

works its way down ... to more specific concepts.

Concepts are placed in [boxes]...

Lines are drawn from a concept

to a linking word to a concept.

Abrams, R. An Overview of Concept Mapping. In

Meaningful Learning: A Collaborative Literature Review of Concept Mapping. Retrieved March 18, 2008 at http://www2.ucsc.edu/mlrg/clr-conceptmapping.html


When is a map novakian30 l.jpg
When is a map Novakian?

“The basic Novakian concept map...

usually starts with a general concept

at the top of the map, and then

works its way down ... to more specific concepts.

Concepts are placed in [boxes]...

Lines are drawn from a concept

to a linking word to a concept.

Sequences of concepts and linking words

do not always form grammatically correct sentences.”

Abrams, R. An Overview of Concept Mapping. In

Meaningful Learning: A Collaborative Literature Review of Concept Mapping. Retrieved March 18, 2008 at http://www2.ucsc.edu/mlrg/clr-conceptmapping.html


When is a map novakian31 l.jpg
When is a map Novakian?

http://cmap.ihmc.us/


Slide32 l.jpg

Many information mapping systems

Mind mapping

Directed link maps

Hunter’s info structure maps

Horn’s argument mapping

AusThink’s argument mapping

Rationale argument mapping

RST* maps

*Rhetorical Structure Theory


Slide33 l.jpg

Novakian maps (Novak & Cañas, 2006)

are type 3 maps,

having textured link dyadic elements.

Associational

Directed link

Textured directed link


Slide34 l.jpg

Argument mapping

Information structure mapping

Syntactic mapping

Grammatical mapping (pseudo)

Association mapping

Novakian maps (Novak & Cañas, 2006)

can be used at any level of abstraction.


Slide35 l.jpg

Novakian maps (Novak & Cañas, 2006)

are type 3 maps,

having textured link dyadic elements.

The rules of operation for Novakian maps may be defined as:

Rectangles (nodes) contain concepts.

Rectangles are joined by labeled lines (propositions).

Propositions are usually uni-directional.

The label in the middle of a proposition

is called a linking phrase.


Hunter s info structure maps l.jpg

<

big

Hunter’s info structure maps

Classification

Description

Degree

comparison

Attribute

comparison

Contrast

!

Sequence

Cause-effect


Slide37 l.jpg

Power generating systems

General

process:

Boil a

liquid

Make

steam

Rotate

turbines

Generate

electricity

seawater

heat

fossil or

N-heat

boil

NH3

boil

H2O

!

OTEC

plants

older type

plants

!

steam

20C

steam

500C

!

low

power

high

power

zero

energy cost

high

energy cost

hunter systems


Slide38 l.jpg

Since

1998


Quantum levels of mapping39 l.jpg
Quantum levels of mapping

Argument mapping

Information structure mapping

Syntactic mapping

Grammatical mapping (pseudo)

Association mapping


Slide40 l.jpg

Argument mapping

Information structure mapping

Syntactic mapping

Grammatical mapping (pseudo)

Association mapping

Argument mappingas an inroad to task constraint-an extreme case ofsummarizing-persuasive rhetoric filtered out


Important levels of mapping l.jpg
Important levels of mapping

Argument mapping

Information structure mapping


Horn s argument mapping l.jpg
Horn’s argument mapping

A pioneering effort at argument mapping

Ad hoc approach (non Toulmin)

Very restricted link relations:

-is supported by

-is disputed by

http://www.stanford.edu/~rhorn/index.html


Horn s argument mapping43 l.jpg
Horn’s argument mapping

The Turing Test

http://www.stanford.edu/~rhorn/index.html


Austhink argument mapping l.jpg
AusThink argument mapping

http://www.austhink.com/


Austhink argument mapping45 l.jpg
AusThink argument mapping

http://www.austhink.com/


Rationale argument mapping l.jpg
Rationale argument mapping

http://www.austhink.com/


Slide47 l.jpg

RSTmapping

Bill Mann’s Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST)

uses various sorts of "building blocks" to describe texts.

The principal block type deals with "nuclearity" and "relations"

(often called coherence relations in the linguistic literature.)

www.sil.org/~mannb/rst/


Slide48 l.jpg

RSTmapping

Bill Mann’s Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST)

uses various sorts of "building blocks" to describe texts.

The principal block type deals with "nuclearity" and "relations"

(often called coherence relations in the linguistic literature.)

www.sil.org/~mannb/rst/

RST links are rhetorical devices.


Slide49 l.jpg

Cmap tools

http://cmap.ihmc.us/


Slide50 l.jpg

Cmap tools

http://cmap.ihmc.us/

Novakian links are syntactic devices.



Slide52 l.jpg

Using link labels to constrain learner behavior

Allow only links

which signal the information structures

which constitute the register*

*Here the register is FAE,

and the degree of abstraction is maximum.


Slide53 l.jpg

Using link labels to constrain learner behavior

Allow only links

which signal the information structures

which constitute the register:


Slide54 l.jpg

Demonstration : task constraint work

Example:

teaching the informal technical academic register

– used, for example, in science magazines and presentation scripts/



Slide56 l.jpg

Demonstration: task constraint work

ppt 1: associational mapping

ppt 2: argument mapping


Slide57 l.jpg

Observations: task constraint work

ppt 1: associational mapping

-orientation problems

-centrality ignored

-no over-structure

ppt 2: argument mapping


Slide58 l.jpg

Observations: task constraint work

ppt 1: associational mapping

-orientation problems

-centrality ignored

-no over-structure

ppt 2: argument mapping

-ignored constraint rule

-added link types

-varied the constraints

-added information


Slide59 l.jpg

Future work

1.

Achieve elegance

in learner argument maps


Slide60 l.jpg

Future work

1.

Achieve elegance

in learner argument maps

2.

Writing work:

learners write from maps to FAE.


Slide61 l.jpg

Argument mapping

Information structure mapping

Syntactic mapping

Grammatical mapping (pseudo)

Association mapping

Future work

Long-term, big new:

Embed

Hunter’s info structure mapping

in

Novakian argument mapping


Slide62 l.jpg

Argument mapping

Information structure mapping

Syntactic mapping

Grammatical mapping (pseudo)

Association mapping

Future work

Embed

Hunter’s info structure mapping

in

Novakian argument mapping

-and see what happens!


Slide63 l.jpg

Thank you for your attention.

You can download this .ppt from

http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/professional/novakian

Lawrie Hunter

Kochi University of Technology

http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/


Slide64 l.jpg

Original outline forLet's Be Novakian: Constraining Task with Structural Mapping SoftwareINTRO: constructivist task, open-endedthe search for means of purposefully constraining typically open-ended EFL constructivist tasks (e.g. "Write about bananas") without going to the opposite extreme of simple closed task (e.g. "What's a banana?)."How to get at specific language features (lexical units, lexical structures)1. explore a variety of mapping software mindmaps (Buzan, association maps)2. explore several general task architectures 3. Show how the use of concept map systems based on associational links can result in excessive task performance freedom. 4. Show Cmap The Cmap, or Novakian, approach <http://cmap.coginst.uwf.edu/> involves the use of labelled links 5. Show how Cmap's labelled links can be used to constrain learner behavior towards more articulate expression while maintaining a high degree of task performance freedom. By constraining the nature of link labels the materials designer can push the learner to very specific language behaviors within larger tasks.6a. demonstrate Cmap task constraint work in the example of teaching the informal technical academic English register (used for example in science magazines and presentation scripts), 6b. demonstrate Cmap task constraint work in teaching the important second language reader/writer skill of distinguishing between (1) technical content and scientific argument and (2) motivating or persuasive rhetoric.


Slide65 l.jpg

Tree wrapping article used inLet's Be Novakian: Constraining Task with Structural Mapping SoftwareTraditional pest control worse than uselessThe Yomiuri ShimbunOSAKA--The traditional method of wrapping pine trees in straw matting during winter to protect them from harmful insects is actually counterproductive, a recent study has found.Komo-maki, or straw mat wrapping, is a traditional pest control method used to trap harmful insects in the straw wrapped around the trunk. In early winter, straw mats are wrapped around the trunks to attract insects. During winter, the insects multiply in the warm mats, which are then removed from the trees and burned together with the insects inside in early spring.But a study led by Chikako Niiho, an associate professor of insect ecology at Hyogo University, found that 55 percent of insects caught in straw mats used to wrap pine trees at Himeji Castle in Himeji, Hyogo Prefecture, for four years, were beneficial to trees, while only 4 percent were harmful.An examination of about 350 straw mats used to wrap pine trees at the castle found between zero and six egger moth caterpillars, a tree pest, each year from 2002-04, and only 44 even in the worst year, 2005. The team found no long-horned beetles--not itself a pest, but a carrier of pinewood nematodes. Together with egger moths, pinewood nematodes are the main cause of pine wilt, a disease fatal to pine trees.On the other hand, the researchers found between 337 and 625 spiders of various species that prey on harmful insects. Also found in the mats were between 90 and 486 beneficial assassin bugs, which also prey on pests.According to researchers, egger moth caterpillars live under bark and are found in cracks in the trunk after the removal of mats, with a lot of egger moth pupae found in the same places in summer. Nematodes also inhabit trunks, meaning the straw mat wrapping is useless as a way of getting rid of them.It is thought that the wrapping of pine trees in winter started in the Edo period (1603-1867), when it was common practice in the gardens of feudal lords. The wrapping has been an annual event at Himeji Castle since the 1960s.But there has long been suspicion that the wrapping serves little purpose.For this reason, while wrapping is still employed in famous places such as Miho no Matsubara (Miho Pine Grove) in Shizuoka and Okayama Korakuen garden in Okayama, the method was abandoned 20 years ago in the Outer Garden of the Imperial Palace in Tokyo and Kyoto Imperial Palace Garden in Kyoto. Hamamatsu, Shizuoka Prefecture, did not employ the method this year and Hiratsuka, Kanagawa Prefecture, is considering dropping it.Niiho said straw mats provide places for beneficial insects to pass the winter. Places that want to continue the wrapping should only burn the mats after giving the beneficial insects time to get away, she advised.A spokesman for Himeji Castle Office said: "It's true we found many spiders in the mats, but as we never knew they were good for the trees we burned them anyway. We want to figure out a better way."(Mar. 27, 2008


Slide66 l.jpg

References forLet's Be Novakian: Constraining Task with Structural Mapping SoftwareAlexander, C., Ishikawa, S., & Silverstein, M. (1997) A pattern language: towns, buildings, construction. New York: Oxford University Press.Bawdily, A. D. & Hitch, G. (2001). Working memory in perspective: Foreword. In J. Andrade (Ed.), Working memory in perspective (pp. xv-xix). Hove: Psychology Press.Baddeley, A. D. (1986). Working memory. New York: Oxford University Press. Barnes, D. et al. (1977) Critical thinking: reading, thinking, and reasoning skills. Austin, Texas: Steck-Vaughan Co.Brown, K. (1999) Developing critical literacy. Sydney, Australia: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research, Macquarie University.Butt, D. et al (2000) Using functional grammar: an explorer's guide (2nd ed). Sydney, Australia: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research, Macquarie University.Chandler, P. and J. Sweller (1992) The split-attention effect as a factor in the design of instruction. British Journal of Educational Psychology 62: 233-246.Chun, D. M. and Plass, J. L. 1997. Research on text comprehension in multimedia environments. Language learning and technology 1(1): 60-81.de Bono, E. (1986) CoRT Thinking. New York: Facts on File.de Bono, E. (1994) de Bono's Thinking Course. Advanced Practical Thinking Training, Inc.EXPO Ontology of scientific experiments http://expo.sourceforge.net/Fulkerson, R. (1996) Teaching the argument in writing. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.Goldman, S.R., & Rakestraw, J.A. (2000). Structural aspects of constructing meaning from text. In M.L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. II, pp. 311-335). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Gopen, G.D. and Swan, J.A. (1990) The Science of Scientific Writing. American Scientist (Nov-Dec 1990), Volume 78, 550-558. Downloadable as a pdf from http://www.amstat.org/publications/jcgs/sci.pdfGreene, D. & Hunter, L. (2002) Critical thinking. Tokyo: Asahi Press.Grow, G. (1996) Serving the strategic reader: cognitive reading theory
and its implications for 
the teaching of writing. Viewed June 30, 2007 at http://www.longleaf.net/ggrow/StrategicReader/index.htmlHalliday, M.A.K. (1985) An introduction to functional grammar. London: Edward Arnold.Horn, R. E. (1998) Visual Language: Global Communication for the 21st Century. Bainbridge Island, WA: MacroVU Press. http://www.macrovu.comHunter L. (2005) Technical Hypertext Accessibility: Information Structures and Rhetorical Framing. Presentation at HyperText 2005, Salzburg. http://www.lawriehunter.com/presns/%20HT05poster0818.htmHunter, L. (2002) Information structure diagrams as link icons. Learning Technology 4(3) July 2002. ISSN 1438-0625. 2002. http://lttf.ieee.org/learn_tech/issues/july2002/index.html#1Hunter, L. (1998) Text nouveau, visible structure in text presentation. Computer Assisted Language Learning 11 (4) October 1998.Kalyuga, S. (2006) Instructing and testing advanced learners: A cognitive approach. Nova Science Publishers.Mann, B. (1999) An introduction to rhetorical structure theory (RST). http://www.sil.org/mannb/rst/rintro99.htmMann, William C. and Sandra A. Thompson (1988). Rhetorical structure theory: Toward a functional theory of text organization." Text 8 (3): 243-281.Mohan, B.A. (1986) Language and content. Addison-Wesley.Moutoux, E.R. Sentence Diagrams: One Way of Learning English Grammar. http://www.geocities.com/gene_moutoux/diagrams.htmNeilsen, A. (1989) Critical thinking and reading: empowering learners to think and act. ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills.Olive, Thierry (2004) Working memory in writing: Empirical evidence from the dual-task technique. European psychologist 9(1), pp. 32-42. Working paper downloaded from http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=15431008Schriver, K.A. (1997). Dynamics in Document Design. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Shannon, C.E., & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Explained at http://www.tcw.utwente.nl/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Communication%20and%20Information%20Technology/Information_Theory.doc/ and http://www.cultsock.ndirect.co.uk/MUHome/cshtml/introductory/sw.htmlSiegel, M. and Carey, R. 1989) Critical thinking: a semiotic perspective. ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills.Soldatova L.N., Clare A., Sparkes A. and King, R.D. (2006) An ontology for a Robot Scientist. Bioinformatics (Special issue ISMB) (in press).Soldatova, L.N. & King, RD. (2006) An Ontology of Scientific Experiments. Journal of the Royal Society Interface (in press).Swales, C. and Feak, C. (2004) Academic Writing for Graduate Students. 2nd edition. University of Michigan Press.Toulmin, S. (1958) The uses of argument. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Tufte, E.R. (1990) Envisioning information. Cheshire, CONN: Graphics Press.Ueta, R, Hunter, L. & Ren, X. Text usability for non-native readers of English. Proceedings, Information Processing Society of Japan, Vol. 2003.7. Pp. 199-200.


ad