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Chapter Nine. Instruction and Discipline. Instruction. Instruction is the delivery of the curriculum content in the classroom. Teachers implement instruction either by authoritarian/subject centered approach or the democratic/learner centered approach. .

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chapter nine

Chapter Nine

Instruction and Discipline

  • Instruction is the delivery of the curriculum content in the classroom.
  • Teachers implement instruction either by authoritarian/subject centered approach or the democratic/learner centered approach.
the role of the teacher in subject centered curriculum
The Role of the Teacher in Subject-Centered Curriculum
  • Subject matter and instructional materials determine the curriculum
  • The teacher…
    • Follows the text book & curriculum guide
    • Uses direct instruction
    • Tests measure learning
    • Encourages convergent thinking
the role of the teacher in learner centered curriculum
The Role of the Teacher in Learner-Centered Curriculum
  • Needs & interests of students help determine the course learning
  • The teacher…
    • Serves as a guide
    • Encourages student learning
    • Uses multiple indicators of learning
    • Promotes divergent thinking
factors that affect student achievement
Factors that Affect Student Achievement
  • Sociological
  • Psychological
  • Physiological
  • Educational Factors
sociological factors
Sociological Factors
  • A student's success or failure in school is often related to the home and community environments.
  • These include the ethnicity and race of the family as well as the socio-economic and educational background of the parents.
  • An important part of the teacher’s role is to encourage parents or caregivers to help their children learn.
psychological factors
Psychological Factors
  • There are many psychological factors associated with student achievement.
  • These include learning disabilities such as, dyslexia, dyscalculia, dysgraphia, attention deficit disorder (ADD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  • It is estimated that as many as 15% of students may have a learning disorder.
  • As a teacher you should try to recognize these potential problems, obtain testing, and begin early intervention.
physiological factors
Physiological Factors
  • There are a number of physiological factors that may affect a student’s achievement.
  • These include various vision, hearing, speech impairments, and certain health problems.
  • As a teacher, you will need to work with related specialists such as the speech teacher, special education teacher, school nurse, or school psychologist to develop an IEP to help the child learn and function in the classroom.
educational factors
Educational Factors
  • There are a number of educational factors that affect achievement.
  • We can adjust our instructional approach, provide effective interventions, and we can act appropriately to deal with the problems of our students.
  • Through careful planning and effective organizing we can improve the learning and achievement of all of our students.
learning theories
Learning Theories
  • There are a number of theories that describe how students learn and explain why students learn in different ways.
  • Two of the most enduring learning theories are the Learning Modalities and Learning Domains.
learning modalities
Learning Modalities
  • Visual – these students learn best by actually seeing written words or images.
  • Auditory - these students profit from teacher lectures, discussions, reading aloud, and by using recording devices.
  • Kinesethic/tactile - these students need to handle and manipulate objects and “learn by doing.”
strategies for helping visual learners
Strategies for Helping Visual Learners
  • Provide written instructions
  • Write terms and vocabulary on the board
  • Have students take notes
  • Use maps, charts, graphs, videos, transparencies
strategies for helping auditory learners
Strategies for Helping Auditory Learners
  • Provide verbal instructions
  • Use videos
  • Allow students to use tape recorders
  • Set-up listening stations with stories or lessons
strategies for helping kinesthetic or tactile learners
Strategies for Helping Kinesthetic or Tactile Learners
  • Use demonstrations
  • Conduct laboratory experiments
  • Construct murals, mobiles, dioramas
  • Use manipulatives for math (Cuisenaire

Rods, abacus, Popsicle sticks, etc.)

learning domains
Learning Domains
  • Cognitive - centers on the traditional area of learning. Concerns memory, recognition, intelligence, and the development of academic skills.
  • Affective - centers on learning as a reflection of student motivation, interests, attitudes and values.
    • Related here, is one’s locus of control (external and internal) that centers on one’s sense of responsibility for behavior and performance.
  • Psychomotor - involves objectives associated with the development of muscular and motor skills.
instructional environment
Instructional Environment
  • Teachers
  • Learners
  • Subject Matter
  • Learning Milieu
  • Good teachers create a “family” environment where the students and teachers support each other and work together.
  • Teachers typically have certain characteristics or dispositions and are:
    • Attentive
    • Genuine
    • Understanding
    • Respectful
    • Knowledgeable
    • Communicative
  • The principles of “invitational education”:
    • All students are able, valuable and responsible
    • Education should be a collaborative, cooperative activity
    • The process of education is the product in the making
    • Students possess untapped potential
      • This potential can best be realized by inviting development
multiple intelligences
Multiple Intelligences
  • Research has shown that intelligence is not just a single attribute, but consists of other dimensions.
  • Linguistic
  • Logical-mathematical
  • Musical
  • Spatial
  • Kinesthetic
  • Interpersonal
  • Intrapersonal
  • Naturalist
  • Emotional
subject matter
Subject Matter
  • There are two distinct forms of delivery of instructional materials.
    • Subject centered - often driven by EOG exams or other high stakes tests.
    • Learner centered - students and teachers have input into the subject matter and curricular materials and a variety of both traditional and non-traditional instructional materials are used.
learning milieu
Learning Milieu
  • The physical and social environment of the classroom.
  • Authoritarian classrooms are arranged in rows with the teacher in the front of the class with passive and quiet students.
  • Democratic classrooms are less structured in the selection and delivery of the subject matter as well as the physical setting of the classroom itself. Desks are arranged to facilitate cooperative and collaborative work in small groups.
inviting classroom environments
Inviting Classroom Environments
  • Living plants and flowers
  • Big, soft pillows
  • Rocking chairs
  • Area rugs
  • Attractive, colorful bulletin boards
  • Positively worded signs
    • Example: “Walk in the halls”
uninviting classroom environments
Uninviting Classroom Environments
  • Artificial plants and flowers
  • Dingy colors
  • Clutter, dirt, and overflowing trash cans
  • Faded bulletin boards
the effective teaching model
The Effective Teaching Model

This model is sometimes referred to as the “seven-step lesson plan” and can help you effectively organize your lessons.

1-Anticipatory set

2-Instructional objective

3-Instructional input

4-Learner outcome

5-Checks for learner understanding

6-Guided practice

7-Independent practice

behavioral objectives
Behavioral Objectives

Behavioral objectives can be summarized by three questions:

  • What do you want your students to learn?
  • How should they demonstrate that they learned it?
  • And how well did they actually learn the material?
beneficial use of time
Beneficial Use of Time
  • Proper time management can maximize the amount of time allocated for learning.
  • There are periods during the day when time may be wasted in the classroom. Referred to as “time leaks,” they can occur during the following periods:
    • Transitional Time -when you are moving from one lesson or activity to another.
    • Instructional Time- involves inappropriate pacing through the material.
    • Post-instructional Time - involves the independent practice time.
testing and evaluation
Testing and Evaluation

There are three distinct forms of evaluation.

  • Norm-Referenced - Compares individual students to others who took the national exam, such as a comparison of others in the same grade or age-group
    • Results reported in percentiles.
  • Criterion-Referenced - A pre-set score (criterion) must be met or exceeded for passing the exam and is generally used as a condition for a decision (i.e. high school graduation, teacher certification, etc.)
    • If the test-taker scores below the criterion score, he or she must retake the exam.
  • Portfolios - Recently, portfolios have been used for the evaluation.
    • National Board Teacher Certification requires teachers to develop an extensive portfolio.
    • Portfolios are also used as a central component of the Praxis III.
discipline and classroom management
Discipline and Classroom Management
  • Over time there has been fierce debate regarding the discipline of children between educators who favor:
    • the authoritarian approach to behavior management


    • the democratic approaches to behavior management
  • The shift from physical punishment (sometimes favored by authoritarian educators) to psychological correction (often favored by democratic educators) has been a clear trend since the colonial period.
corporal punishment
Corporal Punishment
  • Traditional attitudes toward children were rooted in the biblical interpretation of inheriting original sin.
  • In the colonial era schools, discipline was extremely harsh.
  • Severe punishment was administered for what we might consider slight offenses, such as not learning the lesson, being tardy, or talking in class.
rewards and psychological punishment
Rewards and Psychological Punishment
  • Gradually, during the 1800s methods of discipline began to change because of philosophers and educational reformers.
  • John Locke encouraged psychological discipline consisting of praise and encouragement for correct behavior and humiliation for misbehavior.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau also advocated psychological discipline, rather than corporal punishment.
  • Joseph Lancaster, father of the monitorial system, rewarded high achieving and well behaved students with books and medals and used the “dunce cap” to punish students that misbehaved.
social efficiency movement
Social Efficiency Movement
  • The growing size of classrooms in the late 1800s and early 1900s called for new approaches to discipline.
  • The social efficiency movement was characterized by standardized classrooms with wooden desks and chairs bolted to the floor and arranged in rows, facing the blackboard and teacher’s desk.
  • In addition there was a new emphasis on student regimentation to control large classes of forty or more students.
  • During the early to mid 1900s behavioral psychology developed.
  • Advocates such as B.F. Skinner recommended that teachers establish classroom discipline through positive reinforcement and reward.
  • Misbehavior should be ignored, (if possible) so that the student is not given attention for misbehavior and inadvertently rewarded for it.
neo behaviorism
  • Today “neo-behaviorists” have developed disciplinary techniques that are used in schools.
    • Positive Classroom Discipline, developed by Fredrick Jones in the late 1980s, encouraged teachers to control their students by using non-verbal methods such as eye contact, facial expressions, hand gestures, and physical proximity.
    • Assertive discipline developed by Marlene and Lee Canter suggested that teachers “take charge”, clearly lay out a discipline plan and establish a system of rewards and punishments.
progressive humanistic approaches
Progressive/Humanistic Approaches
  • Progressive educators contended that “keeping order” in the classroom did not mean that learning was taking place.
  • They argued that these authoritarian approaches squelched students and diminished their motivation.
  • The pioneers of this area were Pestalozzi, Rousseau, Francis Parker, and the Deweys.
neo progressives the democratic classroom
Neo-Progressives: The Democratic Classroom
  • Neo-Progressives argue that democratic classrooms and the use of positive reinforcement can best maintain discipline.
    • Alfie Kohn recommends the use of praise rather than rewards and prizes (as advocated in assertive discipline) and promotes democratic environments where students assume responsibility for themselves.
    • Rudolf Dreikurs felt that the classroom should be one of mutual respect where the group rather than the teacher alone established rules.
neo progressives activity based learning
Neo-Progressives: Activity Based Learning
  • Other neo-progressive reformers advocated activity-based learning to prevent misbehavior.
    • Jacob Kounin recommended movement/ pacing of activities and transitions from one activity to the next was crucial in keeping students “on track”.
    • Hiam Ginott argued that communication was crucial in maintaining student discipline and contended that self-esteem also played an important role.
neo progressives corrective discipline
Neo-Progressives: Corrective Discipline
  • William Glasser’s Reality Therapy is an approach that focuses on the modification of one’s own behavior.
  • Today, conflict resolution and mediation programs are used in schools.