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Basics of the scientific method. Science is concerned with establishing knowledge Basic research Applied research Science is organized to specify what is problematic, and specify what constitutes a solution. Non-scientific ways of “knowing”. Tenacity I’ve always believed it Authority

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basics of the scientific method
Basics of the scientific method
  • Science is concerned with establishing knowledge
    • Basic research
    • Applied research
  • Science is organized to
    • specify what is problematic, and
    • specify what constitutes a solution
non scientific ways of knowing
Non-scientific ways of “knowing”
  • Tenacity
    • I’ve always believed it
  • Authority
    • The king says so!
  • Reason
    • Logic decrees that….
  • Common sense
  • Personal experience

How many teeth

in the mouth of a horse?

science s assumptions
Science’s assumptions
  • There is order in the universe.
  • Determinism: For every effect, there is a cause (or more than one cause)
  • Empiricism: The way to learn about the world is through observation
  • Parsimony: All other things being equal, simple explanations are better than complex ones
the goals of science
The Goals of Science

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  • Description
  • Prediction
  • Understanding
  • Change
theory hypothesis
Theory & Hypothesis
  • Theory: set of propositions about the relationships among a set of concepts
  • Hypothesis: specific prediction that follows from a theory
    • Testable (falsifiable)
    • Best scientific progress made through strong inference