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Alzheimer’s Disease. By: Ryan Triplett. Alzheimer’s. The deterioration of intellectual capabilities, memory, judgment, and personality to the extent that daily functioning and quality of life are seriously impaired.

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alzheimer s disease

Alzheimer’s Disease

By: Ryan Triplett

alzheimer s
  • The deterioration of intellectual capabilities, memory, judgment, and personality to the extent that daily functioning and quality of life are seriously impaired.
  • Generally occurs in the elderly impairing brain function, which can lead to dementia.
  • Named for German neurologist Alois Alzheimer in 1907.
  • 4 million or more cases in U.S.
  • 100,000 die each year.
  • 4th major leading cause of death in U.S.
  • 65 or older when symptoms can begin
clinical features
Clinical Features
  • Loss of short-term memory and ability to create memories
  • Concentration on past
  • Loss of time
  • Communication diminishes
  • Personality changes
  • Delusions
  • Become immobilized and uncomprehending
  • Death due to respiratory failure
  • 65 and up disease lasts 8-20 years
  • 65 and down disease lasts 5-10 years disease more rapid
histological analysis 3 distinctive neuropathological features
Histological Analysis3 distinctive neuropathological features
  • Devastating losses of synapses and neurons within hippocampus and entorhinal cortex.
  • Dense spherical structures, called senile plaques (SP), prevalent outside the neurons of the hippocampus and other regions of the brain.
  • Aggregations of fibrils (Neurofibrillary tangles, NFT) accumulate within cell bodies and dendritic processes of the neurons of the hippocampus, neurocortex, entorhinal cortex, and other brain parts.
senile plaques
Senile Plaques
  • Densely packed fibrous structures called amyloid bodies.
  • Consists of mainly protein, 4-kDa peptide.
  • Many isoforms make up the amyloid proteins.
  • Amyloid precursor protein another source of which can lead to AD. Functional role unknown.
neurofibrillary tangles
Neurofibrillary Tangles
  • Consist of helical filaments called PHF.
    • Intertwined protein strands made of tau protein molecules.
  • Formation of NFT’s not unique to AD.
    • Found in many other neurodegenerative disorders with dementias, affecting the brain.
  • Scientists believe that the amyloid proteins lead to the formation of the neurofibrillary tangles, and both can lead to AD symptoms.
  • Only definitive way is to use brain scans (CT) to see plaques or tangles in brain tissue.
  • Tests used to exclude other diseases.
  • No treatment can prevent Alzheimer’s
  • Drugs for early stages
    • Cognax, Aricept, Exelon, or Razadyne
  • Severe stages
    • Memantine (Namenda)
  • Medicines used to control symptoms, allow caregivers to provide easier care.
  • Neuroimaging
    • Finding damaged parts of the brain
  • Alzheimer’s Genetics
  • Anti-oxidants
  • Ginkgo biloba
    • Using to stimulate memory
  • Estrogen
    • Tested for levels found in AD patients, which are women
  • Pasternak, J. Jack. Introduction to Molecular Genetics. 2nd edition.2005. pg. 403-408.