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INTRODUCTION Coyotes are highly adaptive and widely distributed across the United States (Figure 1.)

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Understanding Coyote Demography for Endangered Species Management. NYEEMA C. HARRIS, Wildlife Biology Program, Department of Forestry, [email protected] Mentor: Dr. Michael Stoskopf, Department of Clinical Sciences, michael\[email protected] INTRODUCTION

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Understanding Coyote Demography for Endangered Species Management

NYEEMA C. HARRIS, Wildlife Biology Program, Department of Forestry, [email protected]

Mentor: Dr. Michael Stoskopf, Department of Clinical Sciences, [email protected]

  • INTRODUCTION
  • Coyotes are highly adaptive and widely distributed across the United States (Figure 1.)
  • Coyotes influence numerous other species through direct competition and predation, including the following endangered and threatened species:
  • - Black-footed Ferrets
  • - Mountain Plovers
  • - Red Wolves
  • - San Joaquin Kit Foxes
  • - Sonoran Pronghorn
  • - Swift Foxes
  • Figure 1. Coyote Distribution
  • OBJECTIVES
  • Explore the availability of stage-specific vital rates for coyote populations
  • Determine which stage-specific vital rate contributes the most to population growth in coyotes
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • The population ecology of coyotes is not well studied, despite their wide distribution, abundances, and impacts on species of conservation concern.
  • Management efforts should focus on reducing adult survival to reduce the population growth rate in coyotes, based on the results of this model.
  • More comprehensive studies are necessary that estimate multiple vital rates and corresponding variances, especially in the eastern and southern United States.
  • Understanding the population ecology of coyotes can inform management decisions and conservation efforts; especially in areas where coyotes cohabit with species of conservation concern.
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • Alison Al-baati and Dr. Shafer (AGEP)
  • National Science Foundation
  • College of Veterinary Medicine, NCSU
  • Department of Forestry, NCSU
  • METHODS
  • Conducted extensive search in peer-reviewed literature for vital rates across coyote populations
  • Constructed post-birth, female-based matrix from mean vital rates (Figure 2.)
  • Vital rates included in deterministic matrix were :
  • - Survival of Pups (SPups)
  • - Survival of Juveniles (SJuveniles)
  • - Survival of Adults (SAdults)
  • - Proportion Breeding of Juveniles (PBJuveniles)
  • - Proportion Breeding of Adults (PBAdults)
  • - Litter Size of Juveniles (LSJuveniles)
  • - Litter Size of Adults (LSAdults)
  • F= Fecundity = (S * PB * LS) for juvenile and adult stage classes
  • Calculated Elasticities, which measures the proportional change in the population growth rate resulting from a proportional change in each stage-specific vital rate
  • RESULTS
  • Found 13 studies that reported coyote vital rates
  • Few studies (<15%) were conducted in the eastern or southern United States (Figure 3.)
  • Only 31% (4/13) of studies report >2 vital rates, but 7 vital rates were needed for the matrix
  • Adult survival was the most studied and pup survival the least studied vital rate
  • Adult survival has the greatest potential influence on the population growth rate in coyotes (Figure 4.)

Figure 2. Post-birth, Female-based Coyote Matrix

Figure 4. Relative Contribution of Vital Rates

to the Population Growth of Coyotes

Figure 3. States where Coyote

studies have occurred

0 FJuveniles*0.5 FAdults*0.5

SPups 0 0

0 SJuveniles SAdults

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