CHAPTER 31 Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. The Techniques of Genetic Engineering Review of Principles Underlying Genetic Engineering.
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Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
Biotechnology is the use of living organisms to carry out chemical processes for industrial or commercial application.
The choice of a cloning host depends on the final application. In many cases, the host can be a prokaryote, but in others it is essential that the host be a eukaryote (Figure 31.2).
Special procedures are needed to detect the foreign gene in the cloning host (Figure 31.4).
Shuttle vectors allow cloned DNA to be moved between unrelated organisms. A shuttle vector is a cloning vector that can stably replicate in two different organisms.
It is possible to achieve very high levels of expression of mammalian genes in prokaryotes. However, the expressed gene must be free of introns.
Many human proteins that were formerly extremely expensive to produce because they were found in human tissues only in small amounts can now be made in large amounts from the cloned gene in a suitable expression system (Table 31.1).
Many recombinant vaccines have been produced. These include live recombinant, vector, subunit, and DNA vaccines.
Genetic engineering can be used to develop transgenic organisms capable of producing proteins of pharmaceutical value.
Genetic engineering is being employed to make plants resistant to disease, to improve product quality, and to use crop plants as a source of recombinant proteins and even vaccines.