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Biotechnology and genetic engineering

Biotechnology and genetic engineering

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Biotechnology and genetic engineering

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  1. Biotechnology and genetic engineering

  2. Biotechnology - the integration of science and engineering that allows you to more fully realize the potential of living organisms for food, medicines, to solve problems in energy and environmental protection.

  3. One type of biotechnology is genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is based on the receipt of hybrid DNA molecules and introducing these molecules into the cells of other organisms, as well as molecular biological, immunochemical and biochemical methods.

  4. Genetic engineering has started to develop since 1973, when American scientists Stanley Cohen and Chang Enli embedded bacterial plasmid DNA in the frog. Then this plasmid was transformed back to the bacterial cell, which was synthesized proteins frog, frog and transfer of DNA to their offspring. Thus was found a method to incorporate foreign genes into the genome of a particular organism.

  5. Genetic engineering has a wide practical application in the sectors of the economy, such as microbiological industry, pharmaceutical industry, food industry and agriculture. You've heard of genetically modified foods.

  6. One of the most important industries in the genetic engineering is the production of drugs. Modern technology allows the production of various drugs to cure serious diseases, or at least slow down their development.

  7. The basis of genetic engineering is the technology of recombinant DNA molecules.

  8. The basic unit of parentage of any organism is the gene. The information in the genes encoding proteins in the stands during the two successive processes: transcription (RNA synthesis) and translation (protein synthesis), which in turn provide the correct translation of encoded genetic information in DNA from the language of nucleotides into the language of amino acids.

  9. With the development of genetic engineering were increasingly carried out various experiments on animals, from which scientists sought a kind of mutation of organisms. For example, the company «Lifestyle Pets» created through genetic engineering hypoallergenic cat called Ashera GD. In the animal has been introduced a gene that allowed "to bypass the party of the disease."

  10. With the help of genetic engineering, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania presented a new method of producing vaccines: genetically engineered with the help of fungi. As a result, the process was speeded up production of vaccines, which may, according to pensilvantsev, useful in case of bioterrorist attack or outbreak of bird flu.

  11. As mentioned above, the development of genetic engineering, could not affect the production of drugs, contributing to the patient's speedy recovery. Thus, all obtained by the same genetic engineering, bacteria of the family Clostridium, introduced into the body grow and multiply only in oxygen-poor parts of the tumors that are treatable and most difficult to this day.

  12. And you can cite a great many statements that are based on the results of more than 35 years of research and discoveries in the field of genetic engineering, proving its crucial role in humanity.