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Turbocharging the I.C. Engine Guest Lecture for ME 444 Internal Combustion Engines Dr. Philip S. Keller BorgWarner Inc. Engine Systems Group Outline Introduction Turbochargers Thermodynamic Analysis Compressor Turbine Intercoolers Benefits Challenges New Developments Conclusions

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turbocharging the i c engine guest lecture for me 444 internal combustion engines

Turbocharging the I.C. EngineGuest Lecture for ME 444 Internal Combustion Engines

Dr. Philip S. Keller

BorgWarner Inc.

Engine Systems Group

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Turbochargers
    • Thermodynamic Analysis
    • Compressor
    • Turbine
    • Intercoolers
  • Benefits
  • Challenges
  • New Developments
  • Conclusions
introduction
Introduction
  • History
    • 1885 and 1896, Gottlieb Daimler and Rudolf Diesel experiment with pre-compressing intake air
    • 1925 Swiss engineer Albert Buchi develops first exhaust gas turbocharger which increases power output by 40%
    • 1938 first commercial Diesel truck application by “Swiss Machine Works Sauer”
    • 1962 first production application of turbochargers in passenger cars - the Chevrolet Monza Corvair and the Oldsmobile Jetfire
introduction4
Introduction
  • History
    • 1970’s – first oil crisis and increasingly stringent air emission regulations lead to demands for higher power density as well as higher air delivery. Outcome -> virtually all current truck engines are turbocharged.
    • 1978 Mercedes-Benz puts the 300 SD into production marking the appearance of the first turbocharged Diesel passenger car
    • 1994 VW introduces the variable geometry turbo in their TDI Diesel engine significantly improving the transient response of the Diesel engine.
introduction6
Introduction

Power is basically a function of three things:

  • Air density -> boosting
  • Swept volume
  • Engine speed
introduction types of boosting systems
Introduction Types of Boosting Systems

Exhaust Gas - Turbocharger

Mechanical – Supercharger

Main problem with supercharging is the parasitic loss of having to drive the compressor from the engine output shaft. This loss can be up to 15% of engine output.

turbochargers
Turbochargers
  • The vast majority of turbochargers consist of a centrifugal compressor and centripetal turbine mounted on a common shaft

Turbine

Compressor

turbochargers thermodynamic analysis
TurbochargersThermodynamic Analysis
  • ~30-40% of the fuel energy is released as exhaust gas energy
  • Area bounded by points 415 is the theoretical energy available. This is sometimes referred to as blowdown losses

Ideal cycle pressure-volume diagram for a naturally aspirated engine (Baines, 2005)

turbochargers thermodynamic analysis10
TurbochargersThermodynamic Analysis

Schematic of engine with large exhaust volume (left) and minimal volume (right) (Baines, 2005)

Ideal cycle pressure-volume diagram for a turbocharged engine (Baines, 2005)

turbochargers thermodynamic analysis constant pressure and pulse turbochargers
Turbochargers - Thermodynamic AnalysisConstant Pressure and Pulse Turbochargers

Constant Pressure Turbocharger

  • Lower backpressure at higher speeds
  • Primarily marine and industrial engines

Pulse Turbocharger

  • More efficient use of exhaust energy
  • Better torque at low engine speeds
turbochargers thermodynamic analysis pulse turbocharger for multi cylinder engine
Turbochargers - Thermodynamic AnalysisPulse turbocharger for multi-cylinder engine
  • Pulse turbochargers need to have the exhaust piping segregated so that exhaust events don’t interfere with one another
turbochargers compressor
TurbochargersCompressor
  • Consists of three elements
    • Compressor wheel
    • Diffuser
    • Housing
  • Compressor limits
    • Surge line
    • Choke line
    • Maximum Blade Speed
turbochargers turbine
TurbochargersTurbine
  • Turbines consist of turbine wheel and housing
turbochargers intercooler

Intercooler

Turbocharger

TurbochargersIntercooler
  • Temperatures after the compressor can reach 180 C. Cooling the air can offer a significant performance increase.
  • Simultaneous improvement in output, fuel economy, and emissions