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The Education of York County Children: How We Stack Up Who We Are Pennsylvania Partnerships for Children Advocacy organization Independent, non-profit Prevention-focused, research-based
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Who We Are • Pennsylvania Partnerships for Children • Advocacy organization • Independent, non-profit • Prevention-focused, research-based • Pennsylvania Partnerships for Children is a strong, effective and trusted voice for improving the health, education and well-being of the Commonwealth’s children.
Why Education Matters • In order to compete in a 21st century global economy, Pennsylvania needs a highly-educated and proficient workforce. • By the year 2010, the U.S. will face a shortage of 12 million qualified workers for the fastest-growing job sectors including health care and computer technology. (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics) • This will make it imperative that all youth - both enrolled and out of school - have the skills and education to meet this shortage.
Why Education Matters • Lifetime earnings are linked to education level. Earnings estimates show the median PA income by educational attainment to be: (Source: Pennsylvania Workforce Development, 2004 CPS)
The Whole Picture • But before we look at education data, there are other factors at play that determine how well a child performs in school. • Poverty • Child abuse & neglect • Family access to supports/early intervention • Disabilities • Language spoken in the home • Physical and mental health/health coverage
York County Demographics • 1 child in 12 is born to a single, teen-aged mother (same as state) • 1 in 12 children is born at low birth weight (state number is 1 in 11) • 23.3% of children under 18 live in single-parent families (state rate is 26.9%)
York County Demographics • In 2004, 15.8% of babies in York County (1 in 6) were born to mothers with less than a high school education • Compare that to 12.2% for Cumberland County and 30.5% for Lancaster County. • Children living with mothers with low education level are less likely to receive cognitive stimulation and high-quality child care and more likely to have diminished reading skills.
York County Demographics • 1 child in 4 is low-income (below 200% FPIG) • Lancaster = 1 in 3 • Cumberland = 1 in 4(Source: children 0-17; Census 2000 data) • Children living in low-income families are more likely to have poor nutrition, chronic health problems, be less prepared for and have more difficulty in school.
Uninsured Children • Statewide, 133,000 of PA children under age 19 are uninsured. • One child in 3 is enrolled in Medicaid or CHIP. • Uninsured children are more likely to miss school, may not have relationship with primary care provider, and are more likely to need costly emergency room care.
Uninsured Children • Ages 0-18 enrolled in CHIP/MA (August 2006) • Cumberland 19.6% • Lancaster 25.3% • York 29.0% • Percent Uninsured 0-18 (PA Dept. of Insurance study, 2004 ) • Cumberland 5.1% • Lancaster 0.6% • York 12.2%
Child Care • 4.8% of child care slots in state are high-quality, defined by NAEYC and NAFCC accreditation, or Keystone STAR 4 rating. • 4.5% of child care slots in York County are high-quality. • 3.3.% in Lancaster County and 6.6% in Cumberland County. • Children who receive high-quality child care show better literacy skills and score higher on tests of both cognitive and social skills than children cared for in other arrangements.
Limited English Proficiency • Statewide, 3.3% of students enrolled in public schools have limited English proficiency; • In York County, 3.3% of students enrolled in public schools have limited English proficiency; • In York City SD, 16.4% of students enrolled have limited English proficiency; 4.7% in Hanover School District • Lancaster County LEP = 5.5%; Cumberland County LEP = 1.3% • Students with limited English proficiency face greater challenges making progress in school.
Pre-kindergarten Enrollment • Statewide, 12,023 children were enrolled in public school pre-K in 2005-06 • Only 33 kids get public pre-K in York County (Southeastern & West Shore Area SD) • Compare that to 410 children in Lancaster County
Why Pre-K Matters • 90% of brain growth occurs before kindergarten • Nearly 90% of children who are poor readers in first grade will still be poor readers by fourth grade • One-third of children entering kindergarten cannot recognize the letters of the alphabet and more than half do not know basic math concepts.(Source: Pew Center on the States and National Conference of State Legislatures) • Quality pre-K helps get kids ready for school
Full-Day K Enrollment • 54% of PA kindergarteners are enrolled in full-day K compared to 65% nationally. • 32% of kindergartners in York County attend full-day programs as compared to only 6% in 2000. (York City and the Lincoln CS have 100% FDK - Both Dover Area and Eastern York have 98% or above enrollment rates.) • 35.7% of kindergartners in Lancaster County are in full-day programs.
Why Full-Day K Matters • Children in full-day kindergarten programs make more progress in literacy and math than those in half-day programs, concludes a study publishedin the February 2005 issue of the American Journal of Education. • Children who attend full-day K have lower retention rates in the primary grades.
Why Full-Day K Matters • Parents and teachers report greater satisfaction with full-day programs. • Studies indicate that children who attend full-day K receive better report card grades in literacy, math, general learning skills and behavior. • Full-day kindergarteners outscore children in half-day programs on standardized achievement tests up to two years after kindergarten. (NIEER, March 2005)
Class Size in PA • Only 16.3% of students in pre-K through third grade statewide are in classes with 17 or fewer students. • York County fares better with 18.3% of students in pre-K through third grade in classes of 17 or fewer students. • Compare that to 10.6% in Lancaster County and 9.8% for Cumberland.
Why Class Size Matters • Smaller classes increase parental involvement • Reduce disciplinary referrals • Teachers with small classes can spend time and energy helping each child succeed. Smaller classes also enhance safety, discipline and order in the classroom.
PSSA Scores (2005/06) • 39% of fifth graders statewide scored below proficient in reading • 38% of eighth graders statewide scored below proficient in math • Pennsylvania schools face NCLB mandate of 100% proficiency by 2014
PSSA Scores (2005/06) • 36% of 8th graders in York County failed to meet state proficiency requirements in math and close to 29% did not meet proficiency requirements in reading. • Nearly 50% of York 11th graders failed to meet state proficiency requirements in math and roughly 35% did not meet proficiency requirements in reading.
6th Grade PSSA Scores Math Below Proficient Reading Below Prof. • Cumberland 24.2% 28.8% • Lancaster 27% 30.2% • York 30% 32.7% (Source: 6th grade 2005/06 PSSA)
Early Detection Systemin Sixth Grade • As early as sixth grade, the four risk factors for dropping out of school: • Attendance • Behavior • Failing math • Failing English • Need to create early detection system to identify at-risk kids in sixth grade to ensure student success.
School Spending 2004-05 • State average - current expenditures per pupil- $9,736 • York - current expenditures per pupil - $8,510 (York districts range from $7,739 to $10,281) • Per pupil expenditures as high as $18,064 for Lower Merion • As low as $6,992 in Lebanon County, Palmyra SD (Current expenditure data does not include charters, AVTS, special schools)
Accountability Block Grant • Accountability Block Grant Spending • York County school districts planned to use 51% of ABG funds for full-day K making it the most popular use this school year. • Literacy and math coaching comes in second place at 11.7% of funds used. • Early education initiatives (pre-K, full-day K and class size reduction) total 59% of ABG. • 1.2% of funds are earmarked for pre-K.
Youth Demographics • One in 7 Pennsylvanians (1,688,643) is a young person (age 12-21) • 1 in 3 lives in poverty • More than 12,000 are in foster care • More than 40,000 are in juvenile justice • More than 26,000 teens are mothers • 1 in 50 has limited Englishproficiency • 14% have a disability
York County Youth Demographics • One in 3 York residents (111,404) is a young person (age 12-21) • 1 in 4 lives in low-income family • Close to 400 are in foster care (Sept. 2005) • More than 1,700 are in juvenile justice system • 9.2% of all births in 2004 in York were to teen mothers • Approximately 16% of all students in York County have a disability
Risk & Protective Factors • A survey of about 75,000 PA teens shows many of them do not feel supported or protected by their schools, families, neighbors and communities. • The Pennsylvania Youth Survey (PAYS) conducted in 2003 obtained data from a representative sample of 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th graders in urban, rural and suburban communities across the state.
Protective Factors (buffer young people from harm) • 25% of respondents said their parents do not express pride in their accomplishments or that they enjoy spending time with their parents. • 45% said they are not praised by teachers for good work, that their teachers do not tell parents about good work, and that they do not feel safe in school.
Risk Factors (increase likelihood that youth will engage in problem behaviors) • Three in 10 teens (31%) reported it would be easy to obtain alcohol, tobacco, drugs or handguns, including twice (65%) as many 12th graders. • Young people need family guidance, but 10% reported poor family supervision, lack of clear rules or knowledge of the student’s whereabouts.
Successful Transitions to Adulthood • An education that prepares them for the rigors of college or a competitive labor market; skills that enable them to earn a family-sustaining wage one day; • Avoidance of risky behaviors such as illegal drug use in order to become healthy, well-adjusted adults; • Strong interpersonal relationships with friends and family who support their growth and achievements; • Strong connections to the community that forge a sense of belonging.
Why is Youth Development Important? • 2 out of 5 urban 9th graders fail to graduate from high school in the same district four years later • 1 in 6 rural 9th graders • 1 in 8 suburban • High school graduates earn three times more than those who did not graduate. • College graduates earn six times more. • Dropouts have higher rates of teen pregnancy, substance abuse and crime • 80% of those incarcerated are dropouts.
Math Skills Lacking in USA • USA falls near middle of the pack in academic literacy scores of 15-year-olds. • Finland, France, Canada, Poland, Australia and Japan all scored better. (PISA, 32 participating countries, 1999)
U.S. Ranked 24th out of 29 OECD Countries in Mathematics Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data available at http://www.oecd.org/
Graduation Gap • 23.9% of ninth graders in York County fail to graduate from high school in the same district four years later. (2004/05) • 17.6% of ninth graders in Lancaster County fail to graduate from high school in the same district four years later. • 13.1% of ninth graders in Cumberland County fail to graduate from high school in the same district four years later.
Elements of 21st Century Learning • The capacity of young people to be successful in the 21st century goes well beyond reading, writing and computing skills. They need to know how to apply knowledge in the context of modern life. • To accomplish this, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills (a public-private partnership of key federal education officials and leading national corporations) has identified six fundamental elements for 21st century learning.
Elements of 21st Century Learning • Emphasize core subjects (English, reading or language arts, math, science, foreign languages, civics, economics, arts, history & geography); • Emphasize learning and soft skills (information and communication skills, thinking and problem-solving skills, interpersonal and self-directional skills); • Use 21st century tools to develop learning skills (digital information and communication technologies);
Elements of 21st Century Learning (cont.) • Teach and learn in a 21st century context- students need to learn academic content through real-world examples, applications and experiences both inside and outside of school; • Teach and learn 21st century content (global awareness, financial, economic and business literacy, civic literacy); • Use 21st century assessments that measure 21st century skills – sophisticated balance of assessments. (Source: Learning for the 21st Century)
Changing Economic Times “High school graduates must be prepared for a 21st century global economy. Traditional metrics are no longer sufficient indicators of student preparedness. A more meaningful, ambitious high school reform agenda can only be reached when high schools succeed in preparing every student for today’s global challenges by aligning their improvement efforts with results that matter – mastery of core subjects and 21st century skills.” (Source: Ken Kay, president of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills and G. Thomas Houlihan, exec. director of the Council of Chief State School Officers, in Education Week, May 17, 2006.)
Employment Change by Education; 1992-2002 Source: Employment Policy Foundation tabulations of Bureau of Labor Statistics / Census Current Population Survey data; MTC Institute.
Economic Changes • Fastest growing jobs require some education and/or training beyond high school Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2005
Few Employers Feel High School Graduates Prepared For Advancement Applicants with no high school degree Recent public high school grads who have no further education/training Recent grads of two-year college or training program Recent graduates of four-year colleges
Employers/College Instructors Say Many Not Prepared In Math/Writing Employers’/instructors’ average estimates of percentages of public HS graduates NOT prepared in each subject Hart Research & Public Opinion Strategies for Achieve, Inc. Employers Instructors Ability to do math Quality of writing Ability to do math Quality of writing Ability to do math Quality of writing