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The Education of York County Children: How We Stack Up Who We Are Pennsylvania Partnerships for Children Advocacy organization Independent, non-profit Prevention-focused, research-based

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Who We Are

  • Pennsylvania Partnerships for Children

    • Advocacy organization

    • Independent, non-profit

    • Prevention-focused, research-based

  • Pennsylvania Partnerships for Children is a strong, effective and trusted voice for improving the health, education and well-being of the Commonwealth’s children.


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Why Education Matters

  • In order to compete in a 21st century global economy, Pennsylvania needs a highly-educated and proficient workforce.

  • By the year 2010, the U.S. will face a shortage of 12 million qualified workers for the fastest-growing job sectors including health care and computer technology. (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics)

  • This will make it imperative that all youth - both enrolled and out of school - have the skills and education to meet this shortage.


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Why Education Matters

  • Lifetime earnings are linked to education level. Earnings estimates show the median PA income by educational attainment to be:

    (Source: Pennsylvania Workforce Development, 2004 CPS)


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The Whole Picture

  • But before we look at education data, there are other factors at play that determine how well a child performs in school.

    • Poverty

    • Child abuse & neglect

    • Family access to supports/early intervention

    • Disabilities

    • Language spoken in the home

    • Physical and mental health/health coverage


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York County Demographics

  • 1 child in 12 is born to a single, teen-aged mother (same as state)

  • 1 in 12 children is born at low birth weight (state number is 1 in 11)

  • 23.3% of children under 18 live in single-parent families (state rate is 26.9%)


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York County Demographics

  • In 2004, 15.8% of babies in York County (1 in 6) were born to mothers with less than a high school education

  • Compare that to 12.2% for Cumberland County and 30.5% for Lancaster County.

    • Children living with mothers with low education level are less likely to receive cognitive stimulation and high-quality child care and more likely to have diminished reading skills.


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York County Demographics

  • 1 child in 4 is low-income (below 200% FPIG)

  • Lancaster = 1 in 3

  • Cumberland = 1 in 4(Source: children 0-17; Census 2000 data)

    • Children living in low-income families are more likely to have poor nutrition, chronic health problems, be less prepared for and have more difficulty in school.


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Uninsured Children

  • Statewide, 133,000 of PA children under age 19 are uninsured.

  • One child in 3 is enrolled in Medicaid or CHIP.

    • Uninsured children are more likely to miss school, may not have relationship with primary care provider, and are more likely to need costly emergency room care.


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Uninsured Children

  • Ages 0-18 enrolled in CHIP/MA (August 2006)

    • Cumberland 19.6%

    • Lancaster  25.3%

    • York 29.0%

  • Percent Uninsured 0-18 (PA Dept. of Insurance study, 2004 )

    • Cumberland 5.1%

    • Lancaster 0.6%

    • York 12.2%


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Child Care

  • 4.8% of child care slots in state are high-quality, defined by NAEYC and NAFCC accreditation, or Keystone STAR 4 rating.

  • 4.5% of child care slots in York County are high-quality.

  • 3.3.% in Lancaster County and 6.6% in Cumberland County.

    • Children who receive high-quality child care show better literacy skills and score higher on tests of both cognitive and social skills than children cared for in other arrangements.


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Limited English Proficiency

  • Statewide, 3.3% of students enrolled in public schools have limited English proficiency;

  • In York County, 3.3% of students enrolled in public schools have limited English proficiency;

  • In York City SD, 16.4% of students enrolled have limited English proficiency; 4.7% in Hanover School District

  • Lancaster County LEP = 5.5%; Cumberland County LEP = 1.3%

    • Students with limited English proficiency face greater challenges making progress in school.


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Pre-kindergarten Enrollment

  • Statewide, 12,023 children were enrolled in public school pre-K in 2005-06

    • Only 33 kids get public pre-K in York County (Southeastern & West Shore Area SD)

    • Compare that to 410 children in Lancaster County


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Why Pre-K Matters

  • 90% of brain growth occurs before kindergarten

  • Nearly 90% of children who are poor readers in first grade will still be poor readers by fourth grade

  • One-third of children entering kindergarten cannot recognize the letters of the alphabet and more than half do not know basic math concepts.(Source: Pew Center on the States and National Conference of State Legislatures)

  • Quality pre-K helps get kids ready for school


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Full-Day K Enrollment

  • 54% of PA kindergarteners are enrolled in full-day K compared to 65% nationally.

  • 32% of kindergartners in York County attend full-day programs as compared to only 6% in 2000. (York City and the Lincoln CS have 100% FDK - Both Dover Area and Eastern York have 98% or above enrollment rates.)

  • 35.7% of kindergartners in Lancaster County are in full-day programs.


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Why Full-Day K Matters

  • Children in full-day kindergarten programs make more progress in literacy and math than those in half-day programs, concludes a study publishedin the February 2005 issue of the American Journal of Education.

  • Children who attend full-day K have lower retention rates in the primary grades.


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Why Full-Day K Matters

  • Parents and teachers report greater satisfaction with full-day programs.

  • Studies indicate that children who attend full-day K receive better report card grades in literacy, math, general learning skills and behavior.

  • Full-day kindergarteners outscore children in half-day programs on standardized achievement tests up to two years after kindergarten. (NIEER, March 2005)


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Class Size in PA

  • Only 16.3% of students in pre-K through third grade statewide are in classes with 17 or fewer students.

  • York County fares better with 18.3% of students in pre-K through third grade in classes of 17 or fewer students.

  • Compare that to 10.6% in Lancaster County and 9.8% for Cumberland.


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Why Class Size Matters

  • Smaller classes increase parental involvement

  • Reduce disciplinary referrals

  • Teachers with small classes can spend time and energy helping each child succeed. Smaller classes also enhance safety, discipline and order in the classroom.


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PSSA Scores (2005/06)

  • 39% of fifth graders statewide scored below proficient in reading

  • 38% of eighth graders statewide scored below proficient in math

  • Pennsylvania schools face NCLB mandate of 100% proficiency by 2014


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PSSA Scores (2005/06)

  • 36% of 8th graders in York County failed to meet state proficiency requirements in math and close to 29% did not meet proficiency requirements in reading.

  • Nearly 50% of York 11th graders failed to meet state proficiency requirements in math and roughly 35% did not meet proficiency requirements in reading.








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6th Grade PSSA Scores

Math Below Proficient Reading Below Prof.

  • Cumberland 24.2% 28.8%

  • Lancaster 27% 30.2%

  • York 30% 32.7%

    (Source: 6th grade 2005/06 PSSA)


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Early Detection Systemin Sixth Grade

  • As early as sixth grade, the four risk factors for dropping out of school:

    • Attendance

    • Behavior

    • Failing math

    • Failing English

  • Need to create early detection system to identify at-risk kids in sixth grade to ensure student success.


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School Spending 2004-05

  • State average - current expenditures per pupil- $9,736

  • York - current expenditures per pupil - $8,510 (York districts range from $7,739 to $10,281)

  • Per pupil expenditures as high as $18,064 for Lower Merion

  • As low as $6,992 in Lebanon County, Palmyra SD

    (Current expenditure data does not include charters, AVTS, special schools)


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Accountability Block Grant

  • Accountability Block Grant Spending

    • York County school districts planned to use 51% of ABG funds for full-day K making it the most popular use this school year.

    • Literacy and math coaching comes in second place at 11.7% of funds used.

    • Early education initiatives (pre-K, full-day K and class size reduction) total 59% of ABG.

    • 1.2% of funds are earmarked for pre-K.


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Youth Demographics

  • One in 7 Pennsylvanians (1,688,643) is a young person (age 12-21)

    • 1 in 3 lives in poverty

    • More than 12,000 are in foster care

    • More than 40,000 are in juvenile justice

    • More than 26,000 teens are mothers

    • 1 in 50 has limited Englishproficiency

    • 14% have a disability


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York County Youth Demographics

  • One in 3 York residents (111,404) is a young person (age 12-21)

  • 1 in 4 lives in low-income family

  • Close to 400 are in foster care (Sept. 2005)

  • More than 1,700 are in juvenile justice system

  • 9.2% of all births in 2004 in York were to teen mothers

  • Approximately 16% of all students in York County have a disability


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Risk & Protective Factors

  • A survey of about 75,000 PA teens shows many of them do not feel supported or protected by their schools, families, neighbors and communities.

  • The Pennsylvania Youth Survey (PAYS) conducted in 2003 obtained data from a representative sample of 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th graders in urban, rural and suburban communities across the state.


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Protective Factors (buffer young people from harm)

  • 25% of respondents said their parents do not express pride in their accomplishments or that they enjoy spending time with their parents.

  • 45% said they are not praised by teachers for good work, that their teachers do not tell parents about good work, and that they do not feel safe in school.


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Risk Factors (increase likelihood that youth will engage in problem behaviors)

  • Three in 10 teens (31%) reported it would be easy to obtain alcohol, tobacco, drugs or handguns, including twice (65%) as many 12th graders.

  • Young people need family guidance, but 10% reported poor family supervision, lack of clear rules or knowledge of the student’s whereabouts.


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Successful Transitions to Adulthood

  • An education that prepares them for the rigors of college or a competitive labor market; skills that enable them to earn a family-sustaining wage one day;

  • Avoidance of risky behaviors such as illegal drug use in order to become healthy, well-adjusted adults;

  • Strong interpersonal relationships with friends and family who support their growth and achievements;

  • Strong connections to the community that forge a sense of belonging.


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Why is Youth Development Important?

  • 2 out of 5 urban 9th graders fail to graduate from high school in the same district four years later

    • 1 in 6 rural 9th graders

    • 1 in 8 suburban

  • High school graduates earn three times more than those who did not graduate.

  • College graduates earn six times more.

  • Dropouts have higher rates of teen pregnancy, substance abuse and crime

  • 80% of those incarcerated are dropouts.


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Math Skills Lacking in USA

  • USA falls near middle of the pack in academic literacy scores of 15-year-olds.

  • Finland, France, Canada, Poland, Australia and Japan all scored better. (PISA, 32 participating countries, 1999)



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U.S. Ranked 24th out of 29 OECD Countries in Mathematics

Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data available at http://www.oecd.org/


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Graduation Gap

  • 23.9% of ninth graders in York County fail to graduate from high school in the same district four years later. (2004/05)

  • 17.6% of ninth graders in Lancaster County fail to graduate from high school in the same district four years later.

  • 13.1% of ninth graders in Cumberland County fail to graduate from high school in the same district four years later.


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Elements of 21st Century Learning

  • The capacity of young people to be successful in the 21st century goes well beyond reading, writing and computing skills. They need to know how to apply knowledge in the context of modern life.

  • To accomplish this, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills (a public-private partnership of key federal education officials and leading national corporations) has identified six fundamental elements for 21st century learning.


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Elements of 21st Century Learning

  • Emphasize core subjects (English, reading or language arts, math, science, foreign languages, civics, economics, arts, history & geography);

  • Emphasize learning and soft skills (information and communication skills, thinking and problem-solving skills, interpersonal and self-directional skills);

  • Use 21st century tools to develop learning skills (digital information and communication technologies);


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Elements of 21st Century Learning (cont.)

  • Teach and learn in a 21st century context- students need to learn academic content through real-world examples, applications and experiences both inside and outside of school;

  • Teach and learn 21st century content (global awareness, financial, economic and business literacy, civic literacy);

  • Use 21st century assessments that measure 21st century skills – sophisticated balance of assessments. (Source: Learning for the 21st Century)


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Changing Economic Times

“High school graduates must be prepared for a 21st century global economy. Traditional metrics are no longer sufficient indicators of student preparedness. A more meaningful, ambitious high school reform agenda can only be reached when high schools succeed in preparing every student for today’s global challenges by aligning their improvement efforts with results that matter – mastery of core subjects and 21st century skills.”

(Source: Ken Kay, president of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills and G. Thomas Houlihan, exec. director of the Council of Chief State School Officers, in Education Week, May 17, 2006.)


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Employment Change by Education; 1992-2002

Source: Employment Policy Foundation tabulations of Bureau of Labor

Statistics / Census Current Population Survey data; MTC Institute.


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Economic Changes

  • Fastest growing jobs require some education and/or training beyond high school

    Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2005


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Few Employers Feel High School Graduates Prepared For Advancement

Applicants with no high school degree

Recent public high school grads who have no further education/training

Recent grads of two-year college or training program

Recent graduates of four-year colleges


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Employers/College Instructors Say Many Not Prepared In Math/Writing

Employers’/instructors’ average estimates of percentages of public HS graduates NOT prepared in each subject

Hart Research & Public Opinion Strategies for Achieve, Inc.

Employers

Instructors

Ability to do math

Quality of writing

Ability to do math

Quality of writing

Ability to do math

Quality of writing


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Life after High School Math/Writing

  • In 2004-05, 75% of high school graduates statewide said they planned to pursue further education

  • 73% of York graduates said they planned to pursue postsecondary education (compared to Lancaster at 65%)

    • 84.3% of York Suburban students planned to pursue postsecondary education;

    • 80.4% of West Shore Area School students;

    • 60.1% of Red Lion graduates.

    • Approximately 7% of York County graduates (reported in 2005) that they had no plans for employment or postsecondary education beyond high school graduation.


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College Remediation Rates Math/Writing

For entering freshmen, 2000

  • All students: 28%

  • Public 2-year 42%

  • Public 4-year 20%

  • Private 4-year 12%

    (Source: NCES, Remedial Education at Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions in Fall 2000)


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College “Drift-out” Rates Math/Writing

Students not returning for year 2

  • 4-year colleges: 26%

  • 2-year colleges: 45%

    (Source: Mortensen, T.; November 1999. Postsecondary Opportunity as presented by The Education Trust.)

    Of high school graduates nationwide entering four-year institutions, just over six in 10 earn a bachelor’s degree within six years.

    (Source: National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2006)


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Idle Youth Math/Writing

  • Work experience is a valuable part of a successful transition to adulthood. Yet many PA youth are idle – not in school and not employed.

  • 1 in 5 urban PA youth 19-21 is idle

  • 1 in 7 rural PA youth 19-21 is idle

  • 1 in 9 suburban PA youth 19-21 is idle

    (Source: 2000 U.S. Census)


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Guidance Math/Writing

  • More academic, career and human services guidance needed

  • More resources to school districts with the most need

    • Struggling to meet performance goals

    • Larger population of at-risk students


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Career Awareness/Guidance Math/Writing

  • The role of Guidance

    • Ratios of counselors to students too high

    • Addressing discipline, human services issues

  • Develop a “Life Plan” for students

    • Career plan

    • Education plan

    • Life skills plan


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continued Math/Writing

  • Reach beyond guidance counselors

    • “go to” teachers, staff and youth

  • Address the disconnect between schools and the workforce

  • Operationalize the PA State Standards for Career Education and Work

  • Look at innovative ways to bring career information and opportunities to rural and out-of-school youth


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Model Core Curricula Math/Writing

  • Develop model core curricula in language arts, math, science, and social studies/civics to provide districts a tool to assure that all graduates are ready for postsecondary education, work and life

    • Establish a committee to work on embedding the Career Ed. And Work standards and life skills examples into the model curricula

    • Provide extensive professional development to educators on the model curricula

    • Align future teacher training programs around the curricula


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Implement State-Level Graduation Requirements Math/Writing

  • Develop a series of state-standardized interim benchmark assessments in math, language arts, science and social studies that are aligned with the academic standards as a requirement for every student to graduate

    • Phased in over multiple years (at least 5)

    • Offered multiple times to maximize student success

    • Accommodations made for students with special needs

    • These “end of course” assessments can also be used to identify when students are prepared to move to the next level of work

    • A tool to provide credit recovery and streamlined completion for students who have left school and then return to complete get their diploma


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Out-of-School Youth Math/Writing

  • Enhance services and supports for students who are no longer (or marginally) attending school

    • Develop alternative pathways to a high school diploma that:

      • Provide supports for students to manage life demands

      • Meet the same standards as traditional high schools

      • Provide smaller learning environments

      • Provide guidance to connect youth to opportunities to pursue vocational interests as well as academic and career goals

      • Provide flexibility to allow students to transfer, leave, and re-enroll as needed

    • Develop a formalized funding strategy for out-of-school youth that is community and research based


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High School Reform Math/Writing

  • Fully fund PDE Project 720 so that every high school in PA can participate in the program

  • Rigorous and challenging curriculum for all

  • Increase funding for dual enrollment to allow more students to participate

  • Develop and implement a statewide informational campaign on pathways to careers of the 21st century


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Enhance Career & Technical Education Math/Writing

  • Increase rigor for CTE students

  • Provide tutoring and additional academic supports to students who need them

  • Labor market demand and industry-recognized standards and credentials

  • Clear ties between CTE and postsecondary education to allow students to earn credits and credentials


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Afterschool & Youth Development Math/Writing

  • Engage children and youth in constructive, supervised activities to promote learning and positive development beyond the traditional school day.

    • 26% of PA students take care of themselves after school

    • Studies by FBI and others found the peak hours for juvenile crimes and victimization are from 3-8 p.m.


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Multiple Pathways Math/Writing

  • Strategy for out-of-school youth

  • Strategy for in-school but struggling youth

  • Expand alternative school programs


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Policy Implications – Early Care and Education Math/Writing

  • Focus on high-quality early care and education initiatives by:

    • Creating a dedicated line item for pre-K;

    • Increasing Accountability Block Grant funding;

    • Increasing funding for Keystone STARS


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Policy Implications - Education Math/Writing

  • A high school reform agenda focused on rigor, relevance, and support for our students.

  • A sound school finance system that is focused on equitable and adequate funding of the education provided all Pennsylvania students


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Policy Implications - Youth Agenda Math/Writing

  • High-quality after-school and youth development programs available to all of Pennsylvania’s children and youth;

  • An effective strategy to address the issue of students dropping out of school, those marginally attending school, and re-engage those who have already dropped out;

  • Career education for youth, parents, educators and the community to enable young people to make informed decisions about their futures and to ensure they have the necessary skills, knowledge and training to be responsible citizens and successful in a career of their choosing.


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PPC Vision Math/Writing

By 2014, PPC has helped Pennsylvania move into position as one of the top 10 states in the nation to be a child and to raise a child.


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Pennsylvania Partnerships for Children Math/Writing

www.papartnerships.org

800-257-2030

Joan L. Benso

President & CEO


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