QUALITATIVE DATA COLLECTION . The aim of this session is to enable you to: • justify decisions about sampling select and apply an appropriate method of data collection construct questions for qualitative data collection and elicit high quality responses
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The aim of this session is to enable you to:
• justify decisions about sampling
Sampling is not statistically representative but ‘purposive’ or ‘theoretical’, i.e. you sample people who will provide information that serves the purpose of your research.
Do you need to sample people:
Non-directive questions designed to elicit interviewee’s perspective (suitable for qualitative research).
Permits expression of:
Responses are given in context, including emotional and sociocultural context, with expression of nuances and associations.
Effects of research context on responses must be considered.
What is wrong with the following questions?
Construct some alternative questions that will elicit what you want to know. (For discussion in tutorials)
1. What is your opinion of this medication?
2. Do you find this medication easiest to take in tablet form or as an injection?
3. Why do some people not take their medication?
Good communication skills essential:
- neutral prompts such as ‘mmm’ ‘I see’, ‘that’s interesting’, ‘can you tell me more?’
- ‘reflecting’ back what the interviewee has said
Practice, get feedback from interviewees, tape-record your interviews and listen to what YOU say, reflecting on how you might have responded better
Focus groups: group discussion ‘focused’ on particular topic
Imagine you want to carry out video-recorded interviews with men unable to work due to back pain, in their own homes. Anticipate the difficulties you may encounter and how you will resolve them. (For discussion in tutorial groups)
1. Practical difficulties
2. Risks to your interviewees or yourself
3. Ethical issues
Now list some different types of qualitative data that might be interesting to collect/analyse.
Cognitive interviews (verbal protocols)
Asking participants to report cognitive processes (‘think aloud’) while performing task, in order to identify perceptions, stages, strategies, etc.
Visual material (photographs, videos)
A participant observation study of: