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Chapter 9 Qualitative Methods: Introduction and Data Collection. CONTENTS. Introduction: nature, history and development Merits, functions, limitations The qualitative research process The range of methods – introduction Validity and reliability. Data collection/analysis.

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contents
CONTENTS
  • Introduction: nature, history and development
  • Merits, functions, limitations
  • The qualitative research process
  • The range of methods – introduction
  • Validity and reliability
data collection analysis
Data collection/analysis
  • Typically, in qualitative methods, data collection and analysis are intermingled
  • Although Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management has separate chapters on data collection (Ch. 9) and data analysis (Ch. 15), this relationship is recognised.

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

nature of qualitative methods
Nature of qualitative methods
  • Qualitative methods deal with:
    • words(+, sometimes, images, sounds)
    • generally a great deal of information about relatively few cases/subjects, sometimes called ‘rich’ or ‘thick’ data
  • Reason for use:
    • pragmatic: eg. nature of the data, small number of available subjects
    • theoretical: subjects ‘speak for themselves’

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

merits
Merits
  • Correspond to the qualitative nature of sport experiences.
  • Brings people into sport research and studies them ‘in the round’ (Maguire).
  • Results understandable to people not statistically trained.
  • Able to encompass personal change over time.
  • Suited to investigating face-to-face interaction between people (symbols, gestures, etc.).
  • Suited to providing an understanding of people's needs and aspirations.

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

use in market research peterson
Use in market research (Peterson)
  • developing hypotheses on behaviour and attitudes;
  • identifying the full range of issues/views/attitudes to be pursued in larger-scale research;
  • suggesting methods for quantitative enquiry;
  • identifying appropriate language to use in surveys;
  • understanding buying decision-making process;
  • developing new product/service/marketing strategy ideas – free play of attitudes/opinions a rich source of ideas for the marketer;
  • providing initial screening of new product/service/ strategy ideas;
  • learning how communications are received by potential customers – particularly related to advertising.

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

qualitative methods issues miles huberman
Qualitative methods: ‘Issues’ (Miles & Huberman)
  • Labour-intensiveness
  • Time-extensiveness
  • Frequent data overload
  • Possibility of researcher bias
  • Time demands of processing/coding data
  • Adequacy of sampling
  • Generalisability
  • Credibility, quality and utility of conclusions

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

qualitative research process fig 9 1
Qualitative research process (Fig. 9.1)

Sequential approach

(typical of quant. methods)

1. Hypothesise/ conceptualise/plan

2. Collect data

3. Analyse data

4. Write up results

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

qualitative research process fig 9 11
Qualitative research process (Fig. 9.1)

Sequential approach

(typical of quant. methods)

Recursive approach

(typical of qualitative methods)

1. Hypothesise/ conceptualise/plan

2. Collect data

3. Analyse data

4. Write up results

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

grounded theory glaser strauss
Grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss)
  • Theory arises from (qualitative) empirical

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

the range of methods of qualitative data collection fig 9 2
The range of methods of qualitative data collection (Fig. 9.2)

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

the range of methods of qualitative data collection fig 9 21
The range of methods of qualitative data collection (Fig. 9.2)

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

the range of methods of qualitative data collection fig 9 22
The range of methods of qualitative data collection (Fig. 9.2)

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

the range of methods of qualitative data collection fig 9 23
The range of methods of qualitative data collection (Fig. 9.2)

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

the range of methods of qualitative data collection fig 9 24
The range of methods of qualitative data collection (Fig. 9.2)

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

the range of methods of qualitative data collection fig 9 25
The range of methods of qualitative data collection (Fig. 9.2)

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

c ontext questions responses interview types fig 9 3
Context: questions, responses & interview types (Fig. 9.3)

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

questions responses interview types fig 9 3
Questions, responses & interview types (Fig. 9.3)

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

questions responses interview types fig 9 31
Questions, responses & interview types (Fig. 9.3)

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

in depth interviews
In-depth interviews
  • Nature:
    • Length – 30 mins to several hours
    • Depth – more in-depth than a typical questionnaire-based interview
    • Structure – fluid, informal structure
  • Purposes/situations:
    • No. of subjects small
    • Information complex/variable
    • Exploratory/preliminary.
  • Checklist of topics:
    • rather than formal list of questions

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

example of checklist interview on sport activity fig 9 4 part
Example of checklist: interview on sport activity (Fig. 9.4, part)

CURRENT SPORTS ACTIVITIES HOW OFTEN?

WHY?

EXPLORE EACH ONE – COMPARE WHERE? home/away from home

WHO WITH?

MEANING/IMPORTANCE

TYPE OF INVOLVEMENT

ACTIVITIES WOULD LIKE TO DO WHY?

MEANING TO YOU OF: ‘FITNESS’ ‘SPORT’

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

in depth interview interviewing process
In-depth interview: interviewing process
  • Standardised approach:
    • question format same for all subjects
    • minimal unscripted interaction
  • Informal/unstructured approach
    • Free-form, conversational
    • Substantial interaction

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

in depth interview interviewer interventions whyte fig 9 5
In-depth interview: interviewer interventions (Whyte) (Fig. 9.5)

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

in depth interview recording
In-depth interview: recording
  • Take notes, during or after the interview?
  • Sound/video recording?
    • Create written version: Transcription:
    • Use of transcription software

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

focus groups
Focus groups
  • Nature:
  • Similar to in-depth interviews but:
  • Conducted with a group(typically 6-12 members).
  • Facilitator(rather than interviewer) guides discussion.
  • Interaction between subjects takes place.
  • Purposes/situations:
  • researching a small group which would not be adequately represented in a general community survey
  • used when the interaction/discussion process itself is of interest – eg. testing reactions to a new product;
  • individual in-depth interviews may not be practical to arrange for s but people are willing to be interviewed as a group.

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

focus groups contd
Focus groups contd
  • Methods:
  • Facilitator has similar role to interviewer
  • Significant difference: need to ensure all group members have their say
  • Recording: as for in-depth interviews

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

participant observation
Participant observation
  • Nature: The researcher becomes a participant in the social process being studied.
  • Examples:
  • Studying a whole community by living there – Whyte Street Corner Society
  • Studying a sport facility/club as a user/member.

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

participant observation issues
Participant observation: issues
  • Gaining admission to/acceptance by a group
  • What role to play:
    • Full identification as researcher?
    • Partial identification?
    • No identification or fake identity?
    • NB Related ethical issues
  • Identification of informants/confidants – related to the idea of sampling
  • Practicalities of recording of information

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

analysing texts
Analysing texts
  • Research tradition derived from the humanities
    • And theology: hermeneutics
  • ‘Text’ includes:
    • Books, newspapers, magazines - Pictures
    • Posters - Recorded music
    • Film - Television
    • Internet
  • Examples exist of analysis of:
    • Novels and other literature
    • Mass media coverage of events/issues
    • Film
    • Internet

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

biographical research
Biographical research
  • The study of people’s lives
  • Biography/autobiography/personal narrative
    • eg. major figures in a sport
  • Oral history
    • eye-witness accounts of events, lifestyles
  • Memory work
    • Focus group style process using shared written accounts of experiences – eg. holidays
  • Personal domain histories
    • Accounts of individual life-time experience of a life-domain, eg. Sports involvement

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

ethnography
Ethnography
  • From the Greek ethnos, people.
  • Not one technique but an approach drawing on a variety of, generally qualitative, techniques.
  • Also: bricollage: mixed methods.

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

validity reliability and trustworthiness
Validity, reliability and trustworthiness
  • As discussed in Ch. 2:
    • Validity: extent to which the research represents what is intended
    • Reliability: extent to which research is replicable
  • Internal validity: data gathering process:
    • qualitative research validity likely to be high
  • External validity: applicability beyond the research subjects:
    • typically no general applicability is claimed, but some wider applicability can be expected …

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

validity reliability and trustworthiness contd
Validity, reliability and trustworthiness contd
  • Replication
    • Often not possible in qualitative research, but like meta-analysis, cumulative evidence from similar studies may be used.
  • Trustworthiness
    • term used for qualitative research to cover validity and reliability

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge