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Phylum Aves Birds Evolution of birds Adapted for flight – very successful adaptation Evolved from two-legged dinosaurs called theropods. Often called feathered dinosaurs Characteristics Like reptiles, scales and claws on feet Feathers Wings Endotherms Feet Scales Claws on toes

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Presentation Transcript
evolution of birds
Evolution of birds
  • Adapted for flight – very successful adaptation
  • Evolved from two-legged dinosaurs called theropods.
  • Often called feathered dinosaurs
characteristics
Characteristics
  • Like reptiles, scales and claws on feet
  • Feathers
  • Wings
  • Endotherms
slide5
Feet
  • Scales
  • Claws on toes
  • Adapted for many functions
    • Grasping
    • Perching’
    • Running
    • Swimming
    • Climbing
    • Scratching
slide6
Grasping (raptors)
  • Scratching (pheasants)
  • Swimming (ducks)
  • Perching (robins)
  • Running (ostrich)
  • Climbing (woodpecker)
feathers the only organisms with this
Feathers! The only organisms with this
  • Lightweight
  • Modified scale
  • Preening – waterproofing by using beak to rub oil onto feather from tail gland
types of feathers
Down feathers:

Act as insulation

Contour (flight) feathers: tiny interlocking hooks

Types of Feathers
wings
Wings
  • Modification of front limbs
  • powerful flight muscles
  • Sternum looks like the keel of a boat and attaches to flight muscles
strong enough to produce lift flight
Strong enough to produce lift/flight
  • Long, narrow wings = soaring on updrafts
  • Short, broad wings = short flights among trees
endotherms warm blooded
Endotherms – warm blooded –
  • Maintain constant body temp through internal means Allows birds to live in a variety of habitats
  • Requires lot of energy to maintain body temp
how birds cool off
How Birds Cool Off

Birds cool themselves by:

  • flattening the wings an hold them away from the body
  • panting
reproduction
Reproduction
  • Internal Fertilization
  • Amniotic Egg
amniotic egg
Amniotic Egg
  • Laid inside nest
  • Hard shell (unlike soft reptile shell)
  • Distinctive characteristics can be used to identify species
egg identification
Egg Identification

Distinctive characteristics can be used to identify species (color, size, shape)

nests
Nests
  • May be straw, twigs
  • May be scratched into sand
  • May be seasonal or kept for years
  • Birds remain with nest to sit on, periodically turn, and hatch eggs
  • Some birds take turns sitting on eggs. In some species, only one parent does it.
nests19
Nests

A martin’s nest of twigs and leaves

adaptations
Adaptations
  • Project: each group takes a species of bird and researches/presents adaptations.
  • See notes
modifications for flight
Modifications for Flight
  • Four chambered heart
  • Wings
  • Hollow Bones
  • Modified Legs
  • Toothless beaks
  • Respiratory system
  • Digestive system
four chambered heart
Four chambered heart
  • Separates oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
  • Delivers more oxygen to cells
feathers on the wing
Feathers on the Wing
  • Primaries – attach to hand
  • Secondaries – attach to arm
  • Coverts – cover the area where primaries and secondaries attach to the bones
hollow bones
Hollow Bones
  • Decrease body weight
  • Strengthened by crosspieces
beak without teeth
Beak without Teeth
  • Made of keratin
  • Lack of heavy teeth reduces weight
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Legs
  • Mostly skin, bone, tendons
  • Adapted for perching, swimming, or gripping prey
digestive system
Digestive System
  • Must consume large amounts of food for energy
  • Birds swallow stones to help grind up food in gizzard
respiratory system
Respiratory System
  • Air sacs: A holding area for oxygenated air
  • When bird exhales, oxygenated air enters lungs immediately from air sacs
  • Oxygen is available for lungs inhaling and exhaling.