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IT Systems In and Out EN230-1. Justin Champion C208 – 3273 www.staffs.ac.uk/personel/engineering_and_technology/jjc1. IT Systems. Contents What is I/O Motherboards Types of I/O. IT Systems. I/O ?? Stands for Input/Output

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it systems in and out en230 1

IT SystemsIn and OutEN230-1

Justin Champion

C208 – 3273

www.staffs.ac.uk/personel/engineering_and_technology/jjc1

it systems
IT Systems
  • Contents
    • What is I/O
    • Motherboards
    • Types of I/O
it systems3
IT Systems
  • I/O ??
    • Stands for Input/Output
      • A large number of devices allow us to send information into the processor and receive it afterwards
        • Hard Disks
        • Ram
        • CD-Writers
        • Keyboards
        • Printers
        • Monitors
        • Etc, etc
it systems4
IT Systems
  • A number of standards are defined for I/O
    • Standards are required so that any device which meets that standard can communicate with any other device
      • USB
      • SCSI
      • RAM (Discussed last week)
      • IDE
      • Serial
      • Parallel
      • FireWire
it systems5
IT Systems
  • These standards are being used to get information to the processor
    • Once at the processor this information can then be acted upon.
    • To allow all of these devices to communicate with the processor they must be connected together
    • The motherboard allows all of the devices to connect together for communications
it systems6
IT Systems
  • Motherboard
    • This is a integrated circuit which allows circuits to be developed between all of the devices attached
it systems7
IT Systems
  • Bus?
    • The bus is the way that data is moved around the motherboard
      • Each part communicates with the System bus
it systems8
IT Systems
  • System Bus consists of
    • Data Bus
      • The data that is transferred at once
      • The bigger the more information which can be transferred in one cycle
    • Control Bus
      • Carries control signal so that all devices now the current operation state
    • Address Bus
      • Indicates where the data is intended for
      • The bigger the more device that can be attached
it systems9
IT Systems
  • Data Bus
    • The data bus for efficiency should be able to carry the maximum amount of data the processor can deal with
      • 8088
      • 80286
        • 24 Bit address bus, maximum 16Mb of memory
      • 80386 & 80486
        • 32 Address Bus, 4 Gb of memory
      • Intel Itanium - 64 bit
        • 64 Address Bus, Sixteen exabytes ???
it systems10
IT Systems
  • Storage Memory Sizes
    • Bit – 0 or 1
    • Byte – 8 * bits
    • KiloByte – 1024 * Bytes
    • MegaByte - 1024 * Kilobytes
    • GigaByte - 1024 * MegaByte
    • TeraByte - 1024* GigaByte
    • Petayte - 1024* TeraByte
    • Exabyte - 1024* PetaByte
    • ZettaByte - 1024* ExaByte
    • YottaByte - 1024* ZetaByte or 1024 bytes
it systems11
IT Systems
  • BIOS
    • Basic Input/Output System (BIOS)
      • This is a piece of software which is written into the motherboard of your PC
        • It has just the knowledge to carry out a number of actions before handing over to the operating system
        • Power on Self Test (POST)
          • Checks all components are working correctly
        • Loads controls for
          • Keyboard
          • Disk drives (hard disk and floppy)
          • Serial communications
          • VGA basic display
it systems12
IT Systems
  • Hard Disc
    • The primary permanent storage area for a PC
      • A hard disc operates by changing the magnetic properties of the surface of a disc
        • The magnetic poles are changed in one bit to indicate either a 0 or a 1
        • A arm is then moved across the platter which contains the bits to read back or write to a specific part of the hard disc
        • The platter is made up of sectors and tracks
        • These are then made up into clusters
          • The size of the cluster depends on the OS

computer.howstuffworks.com/hard-disk3.htm, 2003

it systems13
IT Systems
  • Hard Disc
    • Cluster
      • When you write data to a cluster the entire cluster is used
        • Even if the file does not fill the cluster
        • This can be seen in this picture from win2000
          • File size and size on disc
slide14
IDE

Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) Common speeds are

    • UDMA33 = 33 Mbps
    • UDMA100 = 100 Mbps
  • IDE interfaces
    • Maximum of 2 devices per controller
    • These drives are cheap and mass produced
    • Maximum cable length of 48cm
    • Higher system costs as the controller requires CPU time
    • Are useful all uses with the exception of very intensive disk usage
slide15
SCSI
  • Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)
    • Commonly considered to be the faster drives
      • Fastest specification is
        • Ultra 3 SCSI 240 Mbps, but this is not widely available
      • Most SCSI drives are similar in speed to IDE
    • Interface
      • Can cope with 8 devices attached to it
      • Can buffer instruction sent to the device
      • Very low CPU overhead for instructions typically 5%
      • Maximum cable length of 12 Metres
    • These drives are expensive!
      • Mostly used today on high end servers, where a number of drives needs to be connected at any time
serial
Serial
  • Serial
    • Is the sending of one bit of data at a time
      • This gives the advantage of only one cable being required for transmission
      • They are able to send duplex data
        • Duplex indicates that data can be sent and received at the same time.
      • This is carried out by transmitting on a different cable than receiving upon
        • Pin 2 transmits data and pin 3 receives data
    • Standard serial ports can received data at 115 Kbps (using the RS232 standard)
serial17
Serial

9 Pin serial port

serial18
Serial
  • Serial
    • Traditional serial connection is through RS-232 and its successors
    • Newer standards are available
      • RS-442
        • Allows faster speeds and longer connection cables, 4000 ft at 100 Kbps or a maximum speed of 1.5 Mbps with a shorter cable
      • RS-485
        • Allows up to 16 devices daisy chained together to communicate
        • Similar speeds but this medium is shared like Ethernet
serial19
Serial
  • Serial
    • Traditionally used for Modem communications
    • Still widely used a lot of handheld devices use serial communications ports.
serial20
Serial
  • Parallel – IEEE 1284 standards
    • Unlike serial uses 8 wires at once
      • This allows 1 byte at a time to sent over the cable
    • Standard Parallel Port (SPP)
      • 100 Kbps
    • Enhanced Parallel Port (EPP)
      • 500Kbps to 2 Mbps
serial parallel
Serial & Parallel
  • Parallel devices current uses
    • Printers
    • External Zip drives
    • External CD drives
    • Data Transfers
universal serial bus usb
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
  • Universal Serial Bus (USB)
    • Standards
      • 1.0 – 12 Mbps
      • 2.0 – 480 Mbps
    • Maximum of 127 devices daisy chained together
      • All share a single interrupt (IRQ)
    • These devices can supply a small amount of electricity
      • 500 Milliamps at 5 volts
    • Now available for all operating systems
      • Including Linux
universal serial bus usb23
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
  • Universal Serial Bus (USB)
    • Devices are
      • Hot swappable
      • Can be put to sleep
    • Data can be transferred in different methods
      • Interrupt based
        • Small amounts of data to be transferred
      • Bulk
        • Large amounts of data like a scanner
      • Isochronous
        • Continuous data transfer like a web cam
    • Data transfer rates are guaranteed for the devices
firewire
Firewire
  • IEEE-1394
    • High-speed serial bus, originally called Firewire, developed by Apple in 1995
      • I-link used by Sony
    • Offers data rates of 100 - 400 Mbps
      • Allows a maximum 63 nodes to be connected
      • A maximum of 72 metres of cable between the host and the device (using a daisy chain)
      • The cabling can provide the power to the device if required
        • 40 volts with 1.5 amps maximum
    • Mainly used for digital video transfer where this throughput is required
it systems25
IT Systems
  • Summary of what we have discussed
    • Motherboard
      • Processor types
    • I/O Types
      • Hard disc
      • USB
      • Serial
      • FireWire